(First upload on November 9 2010. Last on July 16 2017) [ 日本語 | English ]

Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[Engler's syllabus (エングラー体系)]

Elaeagnaceae (グミ)

65 species in three genera in the world
gumi (グミ) = abbreviation of guinomi (グイの実), gui (グイ) = spine (刺)
1. evergreen, flowering in autumn to winter, fruiting in spring to summer ___ Section Sempernirentes or Autumnales
1. deciduous, flowering in spring to summer, fruiting in early summer to autumn ___ Section Elaeagnus or Deciduae

Elaeagnus L. (グミ) in Japan

50-70 deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees motly in the Eurasian Continent (but the most of them are not distributed in Hokkaido)

Fruit: a fleshy drupe containing a single seed → cultivation

E. angustifolia L. (ホソグミ): exotic
E. arakiana Koidz. (タンゴグミ)
E. epitricha Momiyama (キリシマグミ)
E. glabra Thunb. (ツルグミ)
E. hypoargentea Hatusima (ウラギンツルグミ)
E. liukiuensis Rehd. (リュウキュウツルグミ)
E. macrophylla Thunb. (マルバグミ)
E. maritima Koidz. (オオバツルグミ)
E. matsunoana Makino (ハコネグミ)
E. montana Makino (マメグミ)

var. ovata (Maxim.) Araki (ツクバグミ)

E. multiflora Thunb. (ナツグミ, s.l.)
E. murakamiana Makino (アリマグミ)
E. nikaii Nakai (オオナワシログミ)
E. nikoensis Nakai ex Hara (ニッコウナツグミ)
E. numajiriana Makino (コウヤグミ)
E. pungens Thunb. (ナワシログミ)
E. rotundata (Maxim.) Nakai (オガサワラグミ)
E. submacrophylla Servettaz (フユグミ)
E. takeshitae Makino (カツラギグミ)
E. umbellata Thunb. (アキグミ)
E. yakusimensis Masamura (ヤクシマグミ)
E. yoshinoi Makino (ナツアサドリ)
E. × reflexa Morren et Decne. (マルバツルグミ)

= E. glabra × E. pungens

E. × praematura (Koidz.) Araki (イズミグミ)

Elaeagnus umbellata in Hokkaido

Akigumi (アキグミ, 秋茱萸), autumn olive, or umbellate oleaster
Life form: deciduous shrub < 4 m high
Distribution: Himalayas - Japan (Kyushu - southern Hokkaido)
Habitat: sunny sites, such as forest edge, establishing on nutrient-poor soils by nitrogn fixation

Biologically-invasive species to North America
Field training on integrated environmental research (統合環境調査法実習) (出現種リスト)

Leaf: alternate, 4-10 cm long and 2-4 cm wide, entire with wavy margins (covered with minute silvery scales when young)
Branch: bearing sharp thorns in the form of spur branches
Flower: few or many flowers fascicled on the axil - short and erect pedicel

floral tube: becoming slim gradually towards the ovary

Fruit: producing in small, globular fruits in autumn, ebible → seeds dispersed by animal (endo-zoochore)
var. coreana (Lev.) Lev. (カラアキグミ)
var. rotundifolia Makino (マルバアキグミ)

[1/2] on Mount Hakodate, southern Hokkaido, on September 23 2010. [3] in the play ground of Fuji Kindergarden, N16/W3, North Ward, Sapporo, on May 16 2018. [4/5] in a small park (not maintained well) near the Muroran Marine Experimental Station of Hokkaido University on September 12 2016. [6] on the southwestern slope of Mount Koma (flora) on July 10 2017.