(Upload on January 4 2023) [ 日本語 | English ]

Jurisprudence (法学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[ environmental law | research permisssion ]

Environmental law (環境法)

= environmental and natural resources law
Statutes, common law, treaties, conventions, regulations and policies concerned with environments

International environmental law (国際環境法)

The Ramsar Convention (ラムサール条約)
The Washington Convention (ワシントン条約)

[international organizations (国際機関)]

The relevant law (関連法)
nature conservation law (自然環境保全法)
natural park law (自然公園法)
wildlife protection and hunting law (鳥獣保護管理法)

formerly wildlife protection and hunting law (鳥獣保護法)

law for conservation of endangered species of wild fauna and flora (種の保存法)

Laws relevant to skislope and wind power in Japan

landscape (景観), and establishment procedures in relation to skislope (スキー場)

See Japanese page.

wind power

Law relevant to forest (森林関連法)

Forest Act (森林法)

Forest and Forestry Basic Act (森林・林業基本法) of Japan
Objectives (Article 1): to stabilize and improve the life of the citizens and to develop the national economy through comprehensive and systematic implementation of the policies on forest and forestry

Forest reserves (保安林)

National forest reserves (国有保安林)

Landscape Act (of Japan) (景観法)

Purposes: Build a beautiful and dignified land, create an attractive and comfortable living environment and realize vibrant communities with distinct personalities by taking comprehensive measures to develop good urban and rural landscapes such as formulating landscape plans
To improve the quality of life, contribute to the growth of the national economy and sound development of society
Threee acts for landscape and greenness
+ Landscape Act
+ Act to Improve and promote Landscape Act
+ Urban Green Space Act

Shiroyama Area Map


Shiroyama is a 107 meter hill in the middle of downtown Kagoshima. It forms a part of the Aira Caldera which centers on on Sakurajima, and it consists almost entirely of volcanic shirasu deposit. The view from the top of the hill takes in the city center, Kinko Bay and of course Sakurajima, which regularly sends clouds of white smoke and stream over a thousand meters up into the sky, providing a breathtaking panorama.
Since the Seinan Civil War (the Satsuma Rebellion of 1877) Shiroyama has always been associated with Saigo Takamori as the battleground of his last and most famous campaign. The events of 1877 which lead to the deaths of so many of the Satsuma Army, including Kirino Toshiaki, Beppu Shinsuke and the hero of the Meiji Restoration, Saigo Takamori himself, will always be remembered by the people of Kagoshima.
Further back in history it was here that Ueyama built a hill fort during the Northern and Southern Courts (1336-1392), and in Don Square the remains of ancient earthworks and a dry moat bear witness to the defensive role this fort continued to play even under Shimazu rule.
Another of Shiroyama’s many attractions is its rare collection of fauna and flora. The walks up to this observation post from Terukuni Shrine and Iwasaki Valley lead through preservation order woodland of about 500 species of temperate and subtropical flora, including groups of camphor 400 years old, shiroyama fern and shiroyama osmunds, which provide a home for many varieties of birds and rare insects.
Nature trail
Many unusual plants and insects inhabit the glossy leaved wood, including the temperate shiroyamashida fern first found here and the rare kimuragumo spider. Altogether, approximately 500 species of flora make up this natural treasure trove.
Place where Saigo died
Historic sites on Shiroyama include the remains of the fort or shiro built by Ueyama in the period of the Northern and Southern Courts (1336-1392), waterways from the Shimazu period utilizing the impervious geological layers of Shiroyama, Saigo Takamori's cave and the monument to Saigo’s last stand.

Natural park/nature park (自然公園)

A natural park (or nature park) is an area of environmental, historical, cultural, aesthetic, recreation and other values, where ecosystems, nature complexes and separate objects can be used for environmental, ecological awareness and recreational purposes
A national park (s.s.) is a natural park in use for conservation purposes created and protected by national governments


1872: Yellowstone National Park, firstly established in the world (located in three states, Idaho, Montana and Wyoming)

Now about 50 locations, incluidng Grand Canyon and Yosemite, are assigned as national parks
strictly prohibiting hunting, collection, transplantation, feeding, etc.

Ex. can not picking up one leaf without permission

Natural wildfires are not extinguished, except the fire possibly lead human disasters → the policy is that human does not interfere natural events

1931 National Parks Act:

1934 Setonaikai, Unzen and Kirishma - the first three national parks

1957(S32): Natural Parks Act (自然公園法) revised:

national parks + quasi-national parks + prefectural natural parks

Pollution (公害)

Polluter-pays principle (汚染者負担の原則, PPP)

Adopted by OECE on May 26 1972
Those who produce pollution should bear the costs of managing it to prevent damage to human health or the environment

a factory that produces a potentially poisonous substance as a byproduct of its activities is usually held responsible for its safe disposal

→ accepted the principle worldwide

Clean Air Act

1970 Clean Air Act (Extension) of 1970 (1970 CCA)
often called Muskie Act because Senator Edmund Muskie played in drafting the bill
  1. CO2 emission form vehicles produced: after 1975 ≤ 1/10 of 1970-1971
  2. NOx emission form vehicles produced: after 1976 ≤ 1/10 of 1970-1971

→ prohibit the sale after the deadlines if the vehicles do not have the abilities

1972: confrimation of attainment criterion for the production after 1976

NOx = 0.4g/mile
→ hard and fast restriction law for car exhaust at that time
once suggested that the reaching goal was impossible → solved by CVCC (Honda, Japan)

1974: scraped the act, owing to backlash from automakers
→ emission control gradually progressed →

attained the criteria of Muskie Act in 1995

Feed-in Tariff (FIT, 固定価格買取制度)

Research permisssion (調査許可)

We need research permissions from vairous organizations, such as governments and private owners, to conduct field research. Many volcanoes and wetlands are assigned as national or public parks.



Most volcanoes are assigned as national and quasi-national parks.


Depending on the owners of skislopes



Summit area: national forests
South slope: city-owned forest
Skislope: Rinyu Kanko Co. → research permssions must get from City and/or Governmental Offices



Kamori Kanko Co.

Copyright (著作権, ©)

The exclusive right given to the creator of a creative work to reproduce the work (usually for a limited time)
Creative work:
art and music
and others