(Upload on November 14 2022) [ 日本語 | English ]

Eco (エコ)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Eco (エコ)

eko, phonological translation): Japanglish
The word is derived from the abbreviation of "ecology" or 'economy' in Japan. However, the meaning of eco is totally different from the meaning of ecology. Eco means 'saving energy through ecological and/or economical ways.

The meaning of eco in Japanese

Environmental problems solved or solving by using ecological and/or economical techniques
Waste problem
Table. Population growth and food amount.
Food                                              Potato  Cereal   Milk    Pork    Egg

Efficiency of solar energy (%)          0.10     0.05    0.04   0.015   0.002
Area for supporting a person (m2)    600    1,200  1,500  4,000  30,000
Global population supported
    by the food (× billion)                    760      380     300     110       15
Ratio to global population                  21        11        8         3         0.4

a: area for food production = 45,600,000 km2
b: assmuming a population of 36 billion

UN Sustainable development goals (SGDs, 持続可能な開発目標)

Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development
  1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
  3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
  4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
  5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
  6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
  7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
  8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
  9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
  10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
  11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
  12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*
  14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
  15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
  16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive
  17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development
2015.09 Transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development

environment - economics - society

Environmental pollution (環境汚染)

Pollution (公害)

Kogai (公害) can not be translated directly into English.

Air pollution (大気汚染)

≈ atmospheric pollution (s.l.)

Primary pollutants (1次汚染質)
a) volcanic ash
b) sulfur oxides
c) suspended dust (suspended particulate matter, SPM)
d) vehicle exhaust

carbon monoxide (CO, 一酸化炭素)
nitrogen oxides (NOx, 窒素酸化物)

Secondary pollutants (2次汚染質)

Water pollution (水質汚染)

Indicator of water quality
DO (dissolved oxygen)
COD(chemical oxygen demand)
BOD(biochemical oxygen demand)

Soil pollution (土壌汚染)

[ Biodiversity Convention ]

Ecosystem services (生態系サービス)

The benefits of human obtaining from ecosystems
→ MA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment)
Four categories
  • Supporting services (基盤サービス), e.g., photosynthesis and nutrient cycling
  • Provisioning services (供給サービス), seafood, transportation and genetic resources
  • Regulating services (調整サービス), affecting climate, floods, disease, wastes and water quality
  • Cultural services (文化サービス), providing recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits
Environmental policy toolkit through the mnemonic of the "Five P's" (Salzman 2013):


Ecosystem service valuation database, ESVD
The database quantifies the four categories of ecosystem services

Background: TEEB* valuation database

* the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity


Energy problems (エネルギー問題)

EIA (Energy Information Administration, USA, 合州国エネルギー情報局)

IEO2019 (International Energy Outlook 2019): 49% of energry will be obtained from renewable energy by 2050

Electric generation (発電)

Power problems (電力問題)

Wind-power generation (風力発電)

Recently often called "wind power"
the use of air flow through wind turbines to provide the mechanical power to turn electric generators

alternative to burning fossil fuels → produces no greenhouse gas during operation

wind farms [problems]
wind power wind power
Offshore wind power (海洋風力発電)
US: just beginning (in 2019)
Europe: studies at offshore wind facilities indicate some bird and marine mammal species are displaced from project areas, but substantial uncertainty exists regarding the individual or population-level impacts of this displacement. Bird and bat collisions with offshore turbines are thought to be less common than at terrestrial facilities, but currently the tools to measure fatalities at offshore wind energy facilities are not available (Allison et al. 2019)
Environmental problems derived by wind power
  • noise, low-frequency wave
  • disaster, water quality
  • landscape
  • nature quality and quantity
  • wild bird

    collision death (bird strike)
    habitat loss and destruction (escape, barrier)

  • shadow flicker
  • others
Sensitivity map (センシティビティマップ)
  • measured spatial indication of where protected species are likely to be perturbed by change
  • does not create no-go areas
  • not indicative of species presence and absence
  • uses existing data
  • stakeholder involvement
  1. species selection
    terrestrial species
    species of conservation concern
    inclusion add value to the map
    sufficient data
  2. species sensitivity index
    • survival rate, flight manoeuvr, soaring, aerial foraging, ranging behavior, flocking, nocturnal flight activity, aerial display
    • site fidelity, range, sensitivity to displacement, habitat preference, available habitat
    • conservation status, biogeographic population
  3. calculating the sensitivity index
    species sensitivity score (SSS) =

    maximum conservation socre ×

    (averaged flight vulnerability scores +
    averaged habitat averaged flight vulnerability scores)

    characteristics often overlap (i.e. collinear)
    avoid inflation/stretching of range

  4. zoning of sensitivity → sensitivity mapping → disclosure

Nuclear problems (原子力問題)

1937 Osaka Imperial University & RIKΞN (Nishina Y, 仁科芳雄)

developed cyclotron (NHK 2013)

1938 Straßmann et al. (Germany): discovered nuclear fission of uranium
1939.8.2 Einstein (US): Einstein–Szilárd letter

sent to the President Franklin D. Roosevelt
recommend to start US own nuclear program (≈ nuclear bomb) - Manhattan Project

1942 Manhattan Project (マンハッタン計画), USA

1943 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) established

starting the development of atomic bomb

1945 atomic bombing (原爆投下) to Japan (USA)

Hiroshima - uranium type   Nagasaki - plutonium type

1946.01.24 United Nations Atomic Energy Commission established

= UNAEC (国際連合原子力委員会)

1946.06.14 First UNAEC Congress

06.14 USA: Baruch Plan (バルーク案)
06.19 USSR: Gromyko Plan (グロムイコ案)

1946.12.14 United Nations General Assembly (国連総会)

Great Charter of Disarmament (軍縮大憲章) =
Principles Governing the General Regulation and Reduction of Armaments

1946-1958 hydrogen bombs (H-bombs) testing at Bikini Atoll

twenty-three nuclear weapons tested by USA (⇒ ビキニ水爆実験)
⇒ 1954.03.01-05.13 Operation Castle (Bravo test)
⇒ 1956.05.04-07.21 Operation Redwing at Bikini and Eniwetok Atoll

07.20 Tewa test at Bikini
07.21 Huron test at Eniwetok
and others

05.20 Cherokee test (Mark 15) at Bikini
05.27 Yuma test at Eniwetok
06.11 Flathead test at Bikini
07.10 Navajo test at Bikini

1947 UN: General Committee on Disarmament (GCD)
1947 USA: passage-prohibited zone for testing nuclear bombs
1949 USSR: nuclear bomb test (NBT)
1949.04 First World Congress of Partisans of Peace

Later changed to World Peace Council

1949-1950 World Peace Council (WPC) established

1950.03 Stockholm appeal for peace

1950.06.25-1953.07.27 Korean War
1951.02 Berllin Appeal by World Congress of Partisans of Peace (WCPP)
1951 USA: fast breeder reactors (Experimental Breeder Reactor), EBR-1

succeeded in electrical power generation

1952.01.11 First United Nations Disarmament Commission
1952.10.03 United Kingdom: NBT on Montebello Islands, Australia
1952.11.01 USA: Ivy test (wet H-bomb) on Eniwetok Atoll
1953.06.15 Budapest Appeal by WCPP
1953.08.12 USSR: dry H-bomb test - succeeded

unrest in USA, e.g.,
1953.06.19 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg - death penalty
1954.05.27 Oppenheimer expelled from Atomic Energy Commission

1954 Zhou Enlai (周恩来, China)-Nehru, Jawaharlal (India)

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, Panchsheel or Pancha Sila (平和五原則)

  1. Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty
  2. Mutual non-aggression
  3. Mutual non-interference in each other's internal affairs
  4. Equality and mutual benefit
  5. Peaceful co-existence
1954.01.12 USA: declared Massive Retaliation Strategy (大量報復戦略)
1954.03.1-05.13 USAEC: Operation Castle, Bravo test

Teller, Edward (1908-2003), the father of the H-bomb
03.01 Lucky Dragon 5 (第五福龍丸) - 23 crew members

contaminated by the snow-like irradiated debris and ash

03.14 returned to Yaizu Harbor (焼津港)
03.16 scooped by Yomiuri Newspaper
03.31 chairman of AEC, Strauss, Lewis L, press conference
05.13 radiation injury reported from Rongelap Atoll to UN
09.23 Kuboyama Aikichi (久保山愛吉) died owing to radiation sickness = the first victim of the H-bomb
fishery crisis - high radioactivity detected from fish
tsunami - occurred in Japan

1954.09.30 USA: commissioned nuclear submarine

USS Nautilus, SSN-571
1955.01.17 "Underway on nuclear power"

1954.04.28-05.02 Colombo Conference → developed to AA Conference
1955.01.19 Vienna (Wien) Appeal by WCPP

resistance to nuclear warfare

1955.04.18 Bandung, Asian-African or AA Conference held in Indonesia

arms reduction and nuclear disarmament

1955.05.10 Malik Disarmament Plan proposed in UNDC

UNDC = United Nations Disarmament Commission (国連軍縮委員会)

1955.07.09 Russell-Einstein Manifesto (after the death of Einstein)

peace declaration by the scientists

1955.11.29 USA: EBR-1 accident (partial meltdown) in Idaho
1955.02.25-05.03 Operation Troll: follow-up survey after Shunkotsu-maru

1955.02.25-05.03 Roger B Taney (US Coast Guard cutter)

confirming the diffusion of radioactivity

1955.06.22-06.29 World Peace Congress In Helsinki
1957.04.12 West Germany: Göttingen Declaration
1957.07.07 (1st) Pugwash Conferences held in Pugwash, Canada

promoted by R-E Manifesto

1957 (Russia) launched satellite, Sputnik
1957.07.29 established IAEA in UN

International organization, with independently of the United Nations
Headquarters: Vienna, Austria
seeking to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons

1957.10.04 USSR: ICBM (R-7) manufactured firstly by Korolëv, Sergei

used for the blast-off of Sputnik I

1957.10.10 Windscale nuclear plant fire (Eng): radiation contamination
1957.12.17 USA: ICBM (Atlas 12A) test-launched
1958 Poland: concept of nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ)
1959.09.18 Khrushchev: Disarmament Concept (軍備全廃構想)

proposed in UN Conference

1959.09.25-27 Eisenhower (USA) vs Khrushchev (USSR)

Camp David Conference

1959.09 Ten-Nation Disarmament Committee, TNDC (十ヵ国軍縮委員会)
1959.12.01 The Antarctic Treaty (南極条約)

nuclear-free zone, NFZ (非核地帯)

1960.02.14 France: NBT in Sahara Desert
1960.09.24 USA: nuclear-powered carrier, Enterprise (CVN-65)
1961 SL-1 (Stationary low-power reactor number one) accident
1962 Cuban Crisis (キューバ危機)
1963.08.05 signing PTBT by USA, UK and USSR

= Partial Test Ban Treaty (部分的核実験禁止条約)

1963.08.30 Moscow-Washington hotline, established after Cuba Crisis

= Washington-Moscow Direct Communications Link

1964 China: NBT
1968 Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

= NPT (核兵器不拡散条約)

1969.07.26 USA: The Nixon Doctrine (initially called Guam Doctrine)
1969 USA-USSR: started SALT (戦略兵器制限交渉)

= Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

1971.02.11 signed the treat (海底軍事利用禁止条約)

= Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil thereof

1973.06.22 USA-USSR: Washington Summit

signed Prevention of Nuclear War Agreement (核戦争防止協定)

1974.05.18 India: NBT
1974.07.03 USA-USSR: signed TTBT (地下核兵器実験制限条約)

= Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests

1976.05.28 USA-USSR: signed PNET (平和目的地下核実験条約)

= Treaty on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes

1976.08.16-08.19: 5th Colombo Conference, Sri Lanka

= 5th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement, NAM
86 nations participated with 30 observers and guests

1978.05-06 SSD I (第1回国連軍縮特別総会)

= Special Session of United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament
criticism to nuclear deterrence theory (核抑止論) → elimination action

1979 Conference of Committee on Disarmament (ジュネーブ軍縮委員会)
1979.03.28 Three Mile Island accident
1986.04.26 Chernobyl disaster
1981.11 USA-USSR: start the negotiations of INF Treaty

INF = intermediate-range nuclear force (中距離核戦力)

1986.01.15 Gorbachev (USSR) proposed to Reagan (USA)

the elimination of all nuclear weapons by 2000

1987 the Nuclear Free Zones, Disarmament, and Arms Control Act (NZ)
1987.06.08-06.10 13th G7 (Venice Summit)

reconfirmation of nuclear deterrence theory

1987.11,08 Gorbachev (USSR)-Reagan (USA): signed INF Treaty
1988.05.31-06.25 SSD III
1990–1996 the Polynesian nuclear tests (France)
1990 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, START I: agreement in principle

1991.07 signing by USA and USSR

1996.09.10 adopted Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

= CTBT (包括的核実験禁止条約) - still-pending

1997 (USA, Russia): pre-critical experiment (臨界前実験)
2000 USA: NNSA (国家核安全保障局) established for SCEs

= National Nuclear Security Administration

Subcritical nuclear test, SCEs (臨界前核実験)

1997.07.02 USA: first test in Nevada
2010.08.15 USA (Obama)
2010.11.18 USA: Z machine
2017.12.13 USA (Trump)

2011.03.11 Fukushima nuclear disaster

Fig. Nuclear power plants in Germany,
including prototype and experimental
reactors. These will be shut down by 2022.


Following the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima plant, Merkel abruptly announced the end to German atomic era. In July 2011, the Bundestag voted to shut down all nuclear reactors by December 31 2022

waste problem (ごみ問題)

Compost (コンポスト): organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment.

organic solid waste (green waste)
animal manure and bedding
Human waste and sewage sludge

We make compost from fallen leaves in the gardens to use as leaf mold. Kojimachi Junior High School students and Tokyo Garden Terrace Kioicho collaborated on the wooden compost bin.



Portland Streetcar | Green Street Stormwater Facilities

Plants at Work

For your safety and
the health of the
plants, stay out
of the facility and
help keep it free
of litter.
Thank you!

The plants in this green street facility are at work keeping stormwater runoff out the city’s sewer system. During a rain, this facility collects stormwater from NE Martin Luther Jr Blvd. The plants and soil slow and filter the stormwater, before allowing it to soak gradually into the ground.
Stormwater runoff from NE Martin Luther King Jr Blvd enters the facility. → Plant roots and soil bacteria help break down stormwater pollutants. Roots, insects and worms widen spaces between soil particles to increase stormwater storage capacity.
→ During heavy rain, you may see some stormwater overflow back into the street. That water drains directly to the Willamette River.

Each year, this green street facility keeps
223,300 gallons
of stormwater out of the sewer system.

Green street facilities keep sotrmwater runoff out of sewers and local streams, replenish groundwater supplies, and create urban green spaces. Learn more at HP

Environmental Services
City of Portland
working for clean rivers

Food loss (フードロス)

2011 FAO: 1/3 food was lost or wasted every year worldwide

SDGs 12: responsible consumption and production

Def. food loss: the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by food suppliers in the chain, excluding retailers, food service providers and consumers

Food loss index, FLI (食品ロス指標)

Def. food waste: the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by retailers, food service providers and consumers

Food waste index, FWI (廃棄食品指標)