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Geography (地理学)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[Japan, Hokkaido] [geomorphology · geoecology]

Human geography (人文地理学): a branch of the social sciences related to the world, its people, communities and cultures

economic geography
social geography

Physical geography, geosystems or physiography (自然地理学): a branch of natural sciences dealing with processes and patterns in the natural environments in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere

terraquatic science


[remote sensing]

Map (地図)

Symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, and themes.

[ natural science ]

History of map
Thales (BC624-BC526): BC5c gnomonic or central projection (心射図法)
Eratosthenes (BC275-BC194), Ancient Greek

measured the circumference of the earth

Apollonius of Perga (BC262?-BC190?), Ancient Greek: BC240

orthographic projection (正射図法)

Hipparchos (BC190?-BC125?), Ancient Greek: BC late-2C

stereographic projection (平射図法)

⇒ applied to sundial, star chart, etc.
Marinus of Tyre (70?-130?), Greek?

equirectangular projection (正距円筒図法)

The Age of Navigation (16th-17th Century) - need (world) maps
Stab, Johann (Stabius, Johannes, 1460―1522, Austria)
Werner, Johannes (1468-1522, Germany)

→ Stab-Werner projection

Apian, Peter (Bienewitz, 1495-1552)

1530 used Stab-Werner projection for world map

Fine, Oronce (1494-1555, France)

1531 used Stab-Werner projection for (semi-)world map

applied by Mercator (1538)

Mercator, Gerhardus (1512-1594)
Flemish (Belgium) geographer and cartographer
Mercator projection (1569)
Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata
a cylindrical map projection → standard map for navigation

Wright, Edward (1558-1615): showing the drawing by the projection
Sir Dudley, Robert (1574-1649): 1646-1647 marine char

Ortelius, Abraham (1527-1598, Belgium)

published atlas "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum" (1570)

Cossin, Jean (France): used Sanson projection (1570)

Sanson, Nicholas (1600―1667, France): used this projection (1650)

Bonne, Rigobert (1727-1795): Bonne projection
De l'Isle, Joseph Nicolas (1688-1768)
Mollweide, Karl Brandon (1774-1825): Mollweide projection (1805)
von Hammer, Ernst (1858-1925): Hammer projection (1892)
Eckert, Max (1868-1938): Eckert projection (1906)
Winkel, Oswald (1873-1953): Winkel projection (1921)
Goode, John Paul (1862-1932):

homolosine projection and Goode projection (1923)

Miller, Osborn Maitland (1897-1979): Miller projection (1942)
Robinson, Arthur H. (1915-2004): Robinson projection (1974) late 20th c (developing computer and satellite technology)
Colvocoresses, Alden P. (1918-2007)

(universal) oblique Mercator projection (1974)
Snyder, John P. (1926-1997): improved in 1978

Projection (図法)

Mercator projection (メルカトル図法)
1569 proposed by Mercator

cylindrical map projection
the standard projection for navigation because of uniqueness in representing north as up and south as down everywhere and preserving local directions and shapes projection
Fig. Distortion of sizes shown by proportions of apparent size and real size

Mollweide projection (モルワイデ投影図法)
= Babinet projection, homalographic projection, homolographic projection and elliptical projection

an equal-area, pseudocylindrical map projection often used for night sky

Universal transverse Mercator projection, UTM
1947 proposed by the headquarters of United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)

the Transverse Mercator projection to mapping the world, using 60 pre-defined standard zones to supply parameters

Lambert conformal projection (ランベルト正角図法)
Petas projection (ペータース図法)

Digital elevation model, DEM (デジタル標高モデル)

5 Free Global DEM Data Sources – Digital Elevation Models

[biodiversity hotspots, biome, volcanoes]

World (世界)

Classification of continents



Melanesia + Micronesia + Polynesia + Australasia

Asia (アジア)



Beijing Olympic Games
Zhangjiakou (张家口)  Shenyang (沈阳)  Chongli (崇礼)*
Hebei (河北)                Thaiwoo (太舞)*   Wanlong (万龙)
Genting (云顶)*           Taizicheng (太子城)  (*:ski resort)
Wuhan (武漢)
Leye-Fengshan Geopark-P.R.China (中国乐山凤山世界地质公园), located in northwestern Guangxi, southwest China
Shambhala (シャンバラ)
Tibetan Buddhism: an ideal Buddhist kingdom described in the Kalacatantra

reduction of disaster, such as volcanic eruptions and tsunami, and seclusion

Bangladesh - climate map
▇▇ monsoon
▇▇ tropical savanna
▇▇ humid subtropical
▇▇ humid subtropical/subtropical
      oceanic highland


It was the West Pakistan when I was an elementary school student
Capita = Dhaka (largest in the country)
Population (2015) = ca 170 million → density = 1034/km² Geography =

largely dominated by the fertile Bengal delta

Social problems =

political instability
global warming

Purbachal New Town Project
24.9 km2
Sal forest in Purbachal
Sal: Shorea robusta Roth
Sal forest: 122 ha in 2002 → 41 ha in 2014


= Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Southeastern Asia

Khmer Empire or Angkor Empire (802-1218)
origin of Cambodia
Angkor Wat: 162.6 ha - ditch-enclosed castle
Sukhothai dynasty (≈1240-1438)
the oldest dynasty established by Tai peoples in the present Thailand

strong buddhist faith - one cause of decline

Ayutthaya dynasty (1351-1767)
Tai peoples
supported by international trade
Pagan kingdom, empire or dynasty
Bamar people
the first Burmese kingdom to unify the regions (Myanmar in the present)
1044-1077 Anawrahta, Minsaw, reigned (founder)
1314 demolition

Indonesia (インドネシア)

Indonesia Natural History National Museum (Museum Nasional Sejarah Alam Indonesia, MUNASAIN) on January 25 2018
Biological Indonesia (Hayati Indonesia)
Flora: Taxon (Indonesia / World (dunia) × 100, %)
a. Spore plant (91,251/1,560,500 = 6
1. Cryptogame (Kriptogam)

- Mushrooms (Jamur) (86,000/1,500,000 = 6)

750,000 (Micro 64,000 identified (diidentifikasi). Macro 16,000)

- Lichens (Lichen) 595/20,000 = 3
- Liverwort (Hepaticae) 949/7,500 = 8
- Musci (Musci) 1,510/23,000 = 6

2. Ferns (Paku-pakuan) 2,197/10,000 = 22
b. Seed plant 19,232/251,000 = 8
1. Gymnospermae 120/1,000 = 12
2. Angiospermae 250,000 (identified 19,122, 8 probably 30,000-40,000)
Decrease in forests and era of wood industries in Indoensia
In 19th century, most of Indonesian land, i.e., 193.7 million ha was covered by forests (MacKinnon 1997)
In 1950, 163 million ha (84%) of Indonesian land was still covered by primary and secondary forests; tea, coffee, and rubber plantations (Indonesia Forest Agency 1950)

Deforestation since 1970 (million ha/year)
Deforestation rate: In 1985-1997: 1.7 (World Bank 2000)
In 1997-2003: 2.83 (Bappenas 2003)
In 2000-2005: 1.9 (FAO 2007)
Era of plywood industries 1980-1997
In 1967-1979, forestry sectors played an important role as foreign-exchange sources through exporting of round woods (Munarsih 2008)
In 1980-1997, rapid development of Plywood Industries; from 2 factories in 1973, increased 122 factories in 1997 (Munarsih 2008)
Era of pulp-paper industries since 1987

In 1985, forest area was 119 million ha or decreased by 27% from 1950; covering 63% of land (RePPProT 1990)

Collapse of Plywood Wood Industries since 1998
(1) economic crisis in 1997, fall-off of IDR exchange rate, investor debts,
(2) decreasing of wood raw material supply, increasing of wood raw material price,
(3) decreasing of forest potency, infraction of forest management by Forest Concessions,
(4) eco-labelling regulation, illegal exploitation and export,
(5) development of Oil Palm Industries.
Development of forest plantation since 1990
Acacia mangium (Mangium)
Paraserianthes falcataria (Sengon)
Tactona grandis (Teak)

In 1997, forest area was 100 million ha or decreased by 17% from 1985; covering 50% of land
In the early 20th century, forest area was estimated 98 million ha (Wasson & Applegate 2000)

Era of oil palm industries since 2005

Imaginary lines underlying bioregion sharing in Indonesia
Garis Imajiner yang Mendasari Pembagian Bioregion di Indonesia
  • Sumatra
  • Jawa
  • Kallimantan
Wallace Line: a faunal boundary line proposed by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1859 → birds, shells and insects
  • Sulawesi
  • Nusa Tenggara
Weber Line: proposed by Max Carl Wilhelm Weber van Bosse → freshwater fish
  • Maluku
Lydekker Line: proposed by Richard Lydekker
  • Papua
→ vertical distribution of vegetation on Mount Jayawijaya

IPB, January 23/24 2018

Hokkaido University Liaison Office in Indonesia: Grand opening studium generale and workshop

Objectives of this workshop
  • Connect: to connect young faculties of Hokkaido University with researchers and faculty members from Indonesia
  • Collaborate: to build research collaboration involving both countries
  • Contribute: to give solution for problems in Indonesia/Japan or world, and improve the life quality in both countries

Pacific (太平洋)



a subregion of Oceania (composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean)
Mariana Islands
a part of Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc (IBM Arc)
Chamorro, a micronesian native, lived - 17C forced relocation to Guam

9C-17C Latte stone (Taga stone) - use unknown

Caroline Islands
1527 exploration by Diego da Rocha (Portugal) - later, Spanish territory
1899 sold to Germany - until first World War
1914 Japanese territory - 1920 territory mandated by Japan
After WII: trust territory of the Pacific Islands

1986 Federated States of Micronesia
1994 Republic of Palau

≈500-≈1628 Nan Madol: Pohnpei, capital of Saudeleur dynasty

stoen walls and megalith consisting of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals in a lagoon
mallpox introduced by white whalers
Pohnpei: volcanic island - Nahnalaud 798 m elevation, Ngihneni 791 m

enclosed by mangroves


a subregion of Oceania (from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Tonga)


a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean
Easter Island (Isla de Pascua, Rapa Nui)
formed by the eruptions of underwater volcano

The last eruption recorded in 100 Kya
3 major volcanoes: Terevaka (507 m elevation), Poike and Rano Kau

First people probably immigrated in 12th C (carbon dating)

Moai: monolithic human figures carved by the Rapa Nui people on Easter Island between 1250 and 1500 → deforestation

Samoa (サモア)
Independent State of Samoa (1962) |W171°| American Samoa (territory)
Independent State of Samoa, often called as Samoa
Capital city: Apia on Upolu Island
Volcanoes: Savai'i and Upolu
Fig. Monthly precipitation and temperature in Apia


norway Plants in Svalbard
Sanionia uncinata (カギハイゴケ)
Cetrariella delisei (トゲエイランタイ)
Salix polaris (キョクチヤナギ)
Saxifraga oppositifolia (ムラサキユキノシタ)
Dryas octopetala (チョウノスケソウ)
The largest island in Svalbard Islands (N76-81°,)
1926 Amundsen. Norge Roald
1926 Byrd, Richard E.

North America (北アメリカ)


Alaskan Range
Coast Ranges___________________________Laurentian Plateau
__Cascade Range__Rocky Mountains
Sierra Nevada Range_______________Appalachian Mountains
__________Sierra Madre Range

Alaska (アラスカ)

wildfire (森林火災)
FRONT STREET: Front Street has been the business district of Nome since the Gold Rush. In 1900, the street was lined with businesses, bars and bunkhouses. A miner could buy anything, from French lingerie to a hot bath.

Cascade Range (Cascades, カスケード)

Cascade Range
[ plant species | vertical distribution | forest | wetland ]
Major Cascade Range volcanoes

Mount St. Helens (セントへレンズ山)
Mount Rainier (Mount Rainier)

Portland, Oregon
Downtown: ESA meeting in 2017

South America (南アメリカ)

Guyana (ガイアナ)
= Co-operative Republic of Guyana (Capital: Georgetown)
Official languages: English (only this country in South America)

1831 British colony, called British Guiana
1899 international tribunal ruled the land belonged to Great Britain
1966 independence from UK

One People, One Nation, One Destiny

Galapagos (ガラパゴス)

Location of Galapagos Islands

Africa (アフリカ)

The place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes)
Area: 30,370,000 km2
Language: 1250–3000 native languages

North Africa
West Africa
Central Africa
East Africa
Southern Africa

Fig. Köppen climate classification
Deforestation + soil degradation
Africa Africa
Fig. Present vegetation_____________Fig. Potential present vegetation
Ghana Empire (Ghanata or Wagadou)
AD1C-AD3C: established

control of the trans-saharan gold trade
(gold, textiles, foods and salt)

1050 conversion to Islam
1235 submitted to the Mali Empire
1874-1957 British colony

[ Western Australia | Anthem ]

Australia (豪州)


a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighboring islands in the Pacific Ocean, and sometimes, the island of New Guinea

Tropical rainforest Savanna Temperate humid Mediterranean Desert Steppe West coast marine Dec-Apr averages
2-3 per season
Feb-Mar peak
averages 3 per

Fig. Climate features. ♠ climate stations. Arrows: preferredd tropical cyclone
Tropical rainforest
Mediterranean: smoke-induced seed germinaiton
Fig. Vegetation formation (Moore & Perry 1970). Arid zone boundary derived from rainfall and evaporation.
Nullabor Plain (ナラボー平原)
Etymology: nullus (none)+ abor (tree)
20000 km2 (1200 km long from east to west)
Annual precipitation < 250 mm

Polar regions (極地)

= Arctic + Antarctic
Def. Arctic: polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth

Arctic Ocean and the adjacent seas
parts of Alaska, Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia and Sweden

Arctic Alaska (Far North Alaska): a region of Alaska generally referring to the northern areas on or close to the Arctic Ocean

= North Slope Borough, Northwest Arctic Borough, Nome Census Area, and is sometimes taken to include parts of the Yukon-Koyukuk Census Area
Some notable towns there include Prudhoe Bay, Utqiagvik, Kotzebue, Nome, and Galena

Def. Antarctic: --- the southernmost part of Earth

Subpolar region

around latitudes 60° to 65° N/S of the Equator

Greenland (グリーンランド)

Kalaallit Nunaat (island of human, Greenlandic) - Dominion (自治領) of Denmark