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Iridaceae Juss., nom. cons. (アヤメ科)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Order Liliales (ユリ)


Perennials, phylogenetically close to Liliaceae
Rhizome (tuber or corm) present
Perianth: Inner perianth = 3 + outer perianth (fall) = 3 → calyx and petal are not distinguishable
1. homogenous tepal, small flower, filamentous style branch that is alternate with stamens ___ Belamcanda (ヒオウギ), Sisyrichium (ニワゼキショウ)
2. heterogenous tepal, large flower, flat style branch covering stamens ___ Iris (アヤメ)
[Engler's syllabus (エングラー体系)]
Crocosmia Planch. (ヒオウギズイセン)
Crocus L. (サフラン)
Gladiolus Tourn. ex L. (グラジオラス)
Iris L. (アヤメ)
Sisyrinchium L. (ニワゼキショウ)

Crocosmia Planch. (ヒオウギズイセン), montbretia

No native species in Japan - introduced for gardening
Lifeform: evergreen or deciduous perennial
Distribution: southern and eastern Africa
Habitat: mostly in grasslands
C. aurea (Pappe ex Hook.) Planch. (ヒオウギズイセン)
C. crocata (L.) Planch. (アカバナヒメアヤメ)
C. pottsii (Baker) N. E. Br. (ヒメトウショウブ)
C. × crocosmiiflora (Lemoine) N. E. Br. (ヒメヒオウギズイセン)

Crocus L. (サフラン), crocus, common in Japan

About 80 species in the world
All species in Japan are introduced for gardening
Life form: perennial herb
Habitat (in native regions): woodlands, scurbs, and meadows from seashore to alpine
Cultivars: many

Field training on integrated environmental research (統合環境調査法実習) (fauna and flora 種リスト)
HUSTEP: Plants and Plant communities in Japan (flora list)

C. chrysanthus Herb. (カンザキクロッカス)
C. flavus West (キバナサフラン, yellow crocus / Dutch yellow crocus)
C. sativus L. (サフラン/薬用サフラン, saffron, or saffron crocus): the Mediterranean
C. sieberi (L.) J. Gay (Sieber's crocus)
C. speciosus M. Bieb. (アキザキクロッカス *)
C. vernus Hill (ハナサフラン)

Gladiolus Tourn. ex L. (グラジオラス), sword lily

Gladiolus (pl. gladioli)
No native species in Japan → introduced for gardening (many cultivars)
Lifeform: perennial forbs developing bulbs
Distribution: diversity center = the Cape floristic region

native to Africa and Mediterranean regions

APG III: Acidanthera, Anomalesia, Homoglossum and Oenostachys, are included in Gladiolus
G. × colvillii Sweet (グラジオラス)

G. cardinalis × G. tristis

G. × gandavensis Van Houtte (トウショウブ)

G. dalenii × G. oppositiflorus

Western Australia
G. caryophyllaceus (Burm. f.) Poir.

Iris L. (アヤメ) in Japan

I. ensata Thunb. var. spontanea (Makino) Nakai (ノハナショウブ)
I. gracilipes A. Gray (ヒメシャガ) [not in Hokkaido]
I. japonica Thunb. (シャガ)
I. laevigata Fisch. (カキツバタ)
I. minutoaurea Makino (キンカキツバタ)
I. sanguinea Hornem. (アヤメ)
I. setosa Pall. ex Link (ヒオウギアヤメ)
I. pseudoacorus L. (キショウブ)
I. rossii Baker (エヒメアヤメ) [not in Hokkaido]
I. tectorum Maxim. (イチハツ) [ancient exotic]
I. germanica L. (ドイツアヤメ)
I. lactea Pall. (ネジアヤメ)
I. reticulata L. (コマチアヤメ)
I. sibirica L. (シベリアアヤメ)
I. setosaI. laevigataI. ensata
Flowerviolet (rarely white)mainly blue-purplemainly red-purple, φ = 15 cm (largest)
Outer petal retiformnon-retiform, white mottlenon-retiform, yellowish center
inner petalinconspicuousinconspicuous
Stem height> 1 m50-60 cm
Leaf width *1 cm (< 2 cm)2 cm, wavy
Habitatrelatively drymesic, emersedmesic
Chromome number2n = 382n = 322n = 24

*: at 20 cm above the ground surface before flowering

Sisyrinchium L. (ニワゼキショウ) in Japan

70-150 species in the world, taxonomically-cofusing group → all species are exotic to Japan
S. angustifolium Mill. (ルリニワゼキショウ/アイイロニワゼキショウ)
S. exile E. P. Bicknell (キバナニワゼキショウ)
S. mucronatum Michx. (ヒトフサニワゼキショウ)
S. rosulatum E. P. Bicknell (ニワゼキショウ)
  • 村田 源. 1982. 新帰化植物ヒトフサニワゼキショウ(新称). 植物分類・地理 33: 105