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Insect (昆虫)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[vermin, Field trip (flora and fauna), mammal, plant taxonomy]

Animalia > Phylum Arthropoda (節足動物門) > Hexapoda (六脚亜門)

Class Insecta (L. 1758) (昆虫綱)

= Hexapoda
→ a three-parted body = head + thorax (+ three pairs of legs) + abdomen
Life history
Ametabola: no metamorphosis
Hemimetabola: incomplete metamorphosis
Holometabola: complete metamorphosis = larva → pupa, chrysalis/nymph → imago
bee
bee Apis mellifera L. (Worker)
A. Profile: a. head, b. thorax, c. abdomen, 1. ocellus 2. compoundeye 3. antenna 4.labrum, 5. mandible, 6. maxilla, 7. labial glossa, 8. fore wing, 9. hind wing, 10. spiracies, 11. fore-leg, tibia 12. mid-leg, femur, 13-17. hind-legs, 13. coxa, 14. trochanter, 15. femur, 16. tibia, 17. tarsi, 18. abdominal terga 19. abdominaI sterna B: mature larva C: pupa (B, C: profile) (by Sakagami SF)
索引

Hirata
Dendroxena
sexcarinata


Subclass Apterygota (無翅亜綱)

= Ametabola
no wings (essentially), no metamorphosis
Order Diplura (内顎類)
diplurans (コムシ)
after Devonian
Order Protura (原尾類)
proturans (カマアシムシ) springtail
Order Collembola (トビムシ)
springtails, snow-fleas
after Devonian
Order Thysanura (総尾目)
after Triassic
Lepisma (シミ) silver-fish

Subclass Pterygota (有翅亜綱)

metabola

Divison Palaeoptera (古翅群)

hemimetabolous metamorphosis ()
Order Ephemeroptera (Ephemerida, 蜉蝣/カゲロウ, mayflies)
after Permian, > 2000 species
Ephemera (カゲロウ), Epeorus (ヒラタカゲロウ)
mayfly mayfly
Larvae:
antennae short and bristle-like
four to nine parts of leaf-like or fan-like gills along the sides of the abdomen
three (two) long filaments at the rear of abdomen
one claw Adult:
antennae short and bristle-like
front leges long and often held out in front of body
compound eyes large, usually covering most of the head
four membranous wings with many veins and crossveings front wings large, triangular hind wings smaller, fan-shapded
abdomen slender, bearing two (or three) long terminal filaments
Order Odonata (蜻蛉)
≈ 5000 species worldwide
carnivorous
Suborder Zygoptera (イトトンボ) dameselflies
Enallagma circulatum Coenagrionidae (イトトンボ)
Enallagma (ルリイトトンボ): E. circulatum Selys 1883 (ルリイトトンボ)
Platycnemididae (モノサシトンボ)
Lestidae (アオイトトンボ)
Megapodagrionidae (ヤマイトトンボ)
dameselflies Calopterygidae (カワトンボ)
Calopteryx (アオハダトンボ)
Matrona (タイワンハグロトンボ)
Mnais (カワトンボ): M. costalis Selys 1869 (ニホンカワトンボ)
Psolodesmus (クロイワカワトンボ)
Euphaeidae (ミナミカワトンボ)
Euphaea (ミナミカワトンボ)
Bayadera (ヒメカワトンボ)
Chlorocyphidae (ハナダカトンボ)
Suborder Anisozygoptera (ムカシトンボ)
Suborder Anisoptera (真トンボ) dragonflies, mosquito-haws

Phylum Neoptera (新翅群)

Section Polyneoptera (多新翅群)

hemimetabola
Order Blattoidea (網翅, ゴキブリ)
roaches, cockroaches, croton-bugs
after Carboniferous
Blatta (ゴキブリ)
Order Mantodea (カマキリ)
praying-mantis, mantis, smoothsayers
after Paleozoic
Mantis/Paratenodera (カマキリ)
Order Isoptera (等翅, シロアリ)
termites, white ant
after Eocene (after Jurassic proposed by Nelepa & Bandi 2000)
2600 species in the 281 genera of 7 families
Termitidae (シロアリ)
Termes (シロアリ), Leucotermes (ヤマトシロアリ), Coptotermes (イエシロアリ)
Order Zoraptera (絶翅)
zorapterans (Zorotypus)
Order Plecoptera (襀翅/カワゲラ)
stone-flies, salmon flies after Permian, > 2000 species, incomplete metamorphosis (hemimetaboly)
Perla / Neoperla / Isoperla (カワゲラ)
stonefly stonefly
Larvae:
Antennae long, filiform
Body flattened, leges widely separated
Tracheal gills present as tufs behind the head, at the base of legs or around the anus
EAch segement of thorax is covered by a large dorsal sclerite
Ceric long, multi-segment
two tails and two crows
Adult:
antennae long, filiform
front wings long and narrow; M-Cu crossveins form distinctive boxes near center of front wing
hind wings shorter than the front wings; basal area of hind wing enlarged and pleated
cerci long, multi-segmented
horizontally well folded wings
Order Grylloblattoidea (ガロアムシ)
grylloblattids
Galloisiana (ガロアムシ), Grylloblatta
Order Phasmida (ナナフシ)
after Triassic
Phraortes (ナナフシ) walking-stick, stick-insect
Micadina (トビナナフシ)
Phyllium (コノハムシ) leaf-insect
Carausius (= Dixippus): parthenogenesis (virgin birth), for laboratory use
Order Orthoptera (直翅目)
katydids, crickets, grasshoppers, locusts
Order Embioptera (シロアリモドキ)
embiids
after Oligocene
Embia, Oligotoma (シロアリモドキ) webspinners
Order Dermaptera (ハサミムシ)
after Jurassic

Forficula / Anisolabis (ハサミムシ) earwigs, Hemimerus

Section Paraneoptera 側新翅
= Hemimetabola (不完全変態類/半変態類)
Order Psocoptera (チャタテムシ)
= Corrodentia
Suborder Phthiraptera (シラミ)
= Siphunculata
lice (sg. louse), sucking lice
Larva-imago (adult) - haematophagy: sucking blood from mammalian skin
high host-specific: each species: each species parasitizes on the specific hots and lives its entire life on the host

Major human parasite species:
Body louse (only two species) = Pediculus humanus humanus (アタマジラミ) + P. h. corporis (コロモジラミ), Phthirus pubis (ケジラミ)

Suborder Mallophaga ハジラミ bird-lice, bitting lice
Order Thysanoptera (アザミウマ)
Order Hemiptera (半翅/セミ)
= Rhynchota
Section Oligoneoptera (乏新翅類)
= Holometabola
Order Neuroptera (脈翅)
after Permian
Protohermes (ヘビトンボ) dobson-fly, snake-fly. Chrysopa (クサカゲロウ) green lace-wing, golden eye
Order Mecoptera (長翅)
scorpion-flies
after Permian

Panorpa (シリアゲムシ)

Order Trichoptera (毛翅/トビケラ)
caddis flies, trout-flies, case-flies
after Jurassic, > 7,00 species, complete metamorphosis (holometabolism)
Rhyacophila (ナガレトビケラ), Limnophilus (トビケラ), Phryganea ツマグロトビケラ, Goera ニンギョウトビケラ
caddisfly caddisfly
Larva (nymph):
Eruciform (catapilar-like) body; abdomen usually enclosed in a case made of stones, leaves, twigs, etc.
head capsule well-developed with chewing mounthparts
thread-like abdominal gills usually present in case-makers
one pair of hooked prolegs often present at a tip of abdomen
Adult:
Filiform antennae
Mouthparts reduced or vestigal
Two pairs of wings clothed with long hair
Wings held tent-like over the abdomen
Order Lepidoptera (鱗翅/チョウ)
Order Diptera (双翅/ハエ)
Order Aphaniptera 微翅
Pulex (ヒトノミ) flea, Xenopsylla ネズミノミ tropical rat flea, Ctenocephalides (イヌノミ/ネコノミ)
Order Coleoptera (鞘翅/甲虫)
Order Strepsiptera (撚翅)
stylopids
after Oligocene
Stylops, Pseudoxenos: parasitize hornet
Order Hymenoptera (膜翅)

Order Orthoptera (直翅目)


after Permian
Gampsoleis (キリギリス), Mecopoda (クツワムシ), Gryllus (コオロギ), Locusta (トノサマバッタ), Conocephalus melaenus (Haan 1842) (ササキリ)

Suborder Caelifera (雑弁, バッタ)

Superfam Acridoidea (バッタ)
Acrididae (バッタ)
Subfam Acridinae (ショウリョウバッタ)
Subfam Calliptaminae
Subfam Catantopinae (イナゴ)
Subfam Cyrtacanthacridinae
Subfam Gomphocerinae (ヒナバッタ)
Subfam Melanoplinae (フキバッタ)
890 species in 120 genera
Podisma sapporensis sapporensis (サッポロフキバッタ)
Subfam Oedipodinae (トノサマバッタ)
Locusta (トノサマバッタ): L. migratoria L. 1758 (トノサマバッタ) → locust mounds
Arcypteridae
Catantopidae (イナゴ)
Charilaidae
Chrotogonidae
Lathiceridae
Lentulidae
Pamphagidae (フトスナバッタ)
Pneumoridae (セミバッタ)
Pyrgomorphidae (オンブバッタ)
Superfam Eumastacoidea (クビナガバッタ)
Eumastacidae (クビナガバッタ)
Superfam Tetrigoidea (ヒシバッタ)
Batrachididae
Tetrigidae (ヒシバッタ)
Superfam Tridactyloidea ノミバッタ
Cylindrachetidae (ツツケラ)
Rhipipterygidae
Tridactylidae (ノミバッタ)

Suborder Ensifera (剣弁, キリギリス)

Superfam Grylloidea (コオロギ)
Gryllidae (コオロギ)
Gryllotalpidae (ケラ)
Mogoplistidae (カネタタキ)
Myrmecophilidae (アリヅカコオロギ)
Superfam Hagloidea
Prophalangopsidae
Superfam Rhaphidophoroidea (カマドウマ)
Rhaphidophoridae (カマドウマ)
Superfam Schizodactyloidea
Schizodactylidae
Superfam Stenopelmatoidea (コロギス)
Anostostomatidae
Cooloolidae
Gryllacrididae (コロギス)
Stenopelmatidae (クロギリス)
Superfam Tettigonioidea (キリギリス)
Tettigoniidae (キリギリス)

Order Hemiptera (半翅目)


Characterized by sucking mouthparts. The followings are representative:

Suborder Homoptera (同翅)

sicadas cicadas (セミ)
planthoppers (ウンカ)
Superfam Aphidoidea (アブラムシ) (*: extinct)
Aphididae Latreille 1802 (アブラムシ), aphids
Aphis (ワタアブラムシ)
Indomegoura indica (キスゲフクレアブラムシ)
Indomegoura Macchiatiella (イタドリオマルアブラムシ)
Prociphilus (トドノネオオワタムシ)
Uroleucon (セイタカアワダチソウヒゲナガアブラムシ): U. nigrotuberculatum (セイタカアワダチソウヒゲナガアブラムシ), U. gobonis (ゴボウヒゲナガアブラムシ), U. picridis (コウゾリナヒゲナガアブラムシ), U. sonchi (ノゲシヒゲナガアブラムシ), U. erigeronensis (ヒメムカシヨモギヒゲナガアブラムシ)
Tetraneura (ヨスジワタアブラ): six species reported from Sapporo - T. nigriabdominalis (オカボノクロアブラムシ), T. sorini (オオヨスジワタムシ) and others
urogob Uroleucon: U. gobonis (ゴボウヒゲナガアブラムシ)
Adelgidae (カサアブラムシ)
Phylloxeridae (ネアブラムシ)
Bajsaphididae* Homan, Zyla et Wegierek 2015
Canadaphididae* Richards 1966
Cretamyzidae* Heie 1992
Drepanochaitophoridae* Zhang et Hong 1999
Oviparosiphidae* Shaposhnikov 1979
Parvaverrucosidae* Poinar et Brown 2006
Sinaphididae* Zhang, Zhang, Hou et Ma 1989
+ incertae cedis
leafhoppers (ヨコバイ)

Suborder Heteroptera (異翅, stink or shield bug)

ST water striders (アメンボ)
bedbug (ナンキンムシ)
giant water bug (タガメ)
water scorpion (タイコウチ)
backswimmers (マツモムシ)
shield bugs (カメムシ)
ST

Order Coleoptera (鞘翅目)


after Permian
Complete metamorphosis

Suborder Archostemata ナガヒラタムシ(始原)

Superfam Cupedoidea ナガヒラタムシ上科
Cupedidae ナガヒラタムシ
Micromalthidae チビナガヒラタムシ

Suborder Adephaga オサムシ(食肉)

Superfam Caraboidea オサムシ carabids
Rhysodidae セスジムシ
Cicindelidae ハンミョウ
beetle Carabidae オサムシ carabids
Hemicarabus maeander paludis Fischer 1822 (セスジアカガネオサムシ)
Damaster blaptoides Kollar 1836 (マイマイカブリ), Japanese ground beetle
beetle beetle
rugipennis Motschulsky 1861 (エゾマイマイカブリ), Hokkaido
viridipennis Lewis 1880 (キタマイマイカブリ), northern Tohokku
babaianus Ishikawa 1984 (コアオマイマイカブリ), Sendai fortunei Adamus 1861 (アオマイマイカブリ), Awajima Isl
oxuroides Schaum 1862 (ヒメマイマイカブリ), Isu-Oshima, Kanto and Chubu
capito Lewis 1880 (サドマイマイカブリ), Sado Isl.
brevicaudus Imura et Mizusawa 1995 (オキマイマイカブリ), Oki Isl. blaptoides Kollar 1836 (マイマイカブリ), western Japan
Paussidae ヒゲブトオサムシ
Scaritidae ヒョウタンゴミムシ
Harpalidae ゴミムシ ground beetle
Brachinidae ホソクビゴミムシ
Paussidae カワラゴミムシ
Halipliplidae コガシラミズムシ
Noteridae コツブゲンゴロウ
Dytiscidae ゲンゴロウdiving beetle
Gyrinidae ミズスマシ whirligig beetle

Suborder Myxophagaツブミズムシ(粘食)

Superfaimily Microsporioidea ツブミズムシ
Torridincolidae ツブミズムシ

Suborder Polyphaga カブトムシ(多食)

Superfam Hydrophiloidea ガムシ
Hydrophilidae ガムシ: ガムシ、コガムシ
Hydrochidae ホソガムシ
Helophoridae セスジガムシ
Georissidae マルドロムシ
Superfam Histeroidea エンマムシ
Histeridae エンマムシ
Synteliidae エンマムシモドキ
Sphaeritidae エンマムシダマシ
Superfam Staphylinoidea ハネカクシ
larvae Silphidae シデムシcarrion beetle
most species are scavengers
Nicrophorus (N. concolor Kraatz 1877), Silpha (S. paerforata: Hokkaido) larvae Staphylinidae ハネカクシ rove beetle
Eusphalerum parallelum Sharp 1889
× Paederus littoralis Gravenhorst 1802: The body fluid causes dermatitis and/or loss of eyesight. ×
Scydmaenidae コケムシ
Leiodidae タマキノコムシ
Ptiliidae ムクゲキノコムシ
Hydraenidae ダルマガムシ
Superfam Scarabaeoidea コガネムシ
Lucanidae クワガタムシ stag beetle
Dorcus hopei binodulosus Waterhouse 1874 (オオクワガタ), RDB = VU
Dorcus montivagus Lewis ヒメオオクワガタ, alpine
Dorcus (Macrodorcus) rectus Motschulsky 1857 コクワガタ
Prosopocoilus inclinatus Motschulsky 1857 ノコギリクワガタ
many other species
Diphyllostomatidae ホソマグソクワガタ
Geotrupidae センチコガネ
Trogidae コブスジコガネ
Eucetoma roelofsi Scarabaeidae コガネムシ: ≈ 30000 species between subarctic and tropical regions
Eucetoma roelofsi アオハナムグリ
Passalidae クロツヤムシ
Usu Anomala testaceipes Motshulsky スジコガネ

Color: diverse
Food: adult = coniferous leaves, larva = roots in soils
The outbreak of Anomala testaceipes on a larch (Larix kaempferi) in the crater basin of Mount Usu on August 8 2011. These beetles were on one of the permanent plots for monitoring volcanic succession. Outbreaks may occur frequently on simple ecosystems, such as volcanoes. On Mount Usu, the outbreak of hairy caterpillars occurred on Populus maximowiczii.

Superfam Byrrhoidea マルトゲムシ
Byrrhoidae マルトゲムシ
Superfam Buprestoidea タマムシ
Leiodidae タマムシjewel beetle
Superfam Elateroidea コメツキムシ
Elateridae コメツキムシ click beetle
Usu
Superfam Dryopoidea ドロムシ
Dryopidae ドロムシ
Elminthidae ヒメドロムシ
Heteroceridae ナガドロムシ
Psephenidae ヒラタドロムシ
Callirhipidae ホソクシヒゲムシ
Chelonariidae ダエンマルトゲムシ
Ptilodactylidae ナガハナノミ
Superfam Cantharoidea ホタル
Brachypsectridae ブラキプセクトラ
Athemus suturellus Cantharidae ジョウカイボン (soldier beetle): Athemus suturellus
Cneoglossidae クネオグロスス
Drilidae ドリルス
Homalisidae ホマリスス
Lampyridae Latreille 1817 (ホタル), firefly
Luciola Laporte 1833 (ホタル): L. cruciata Motschulsky 1854 (ゲンジボタル), L. lateralis Motschulsky 1860 (ヘイケボタル)
Lucidina Lucidina (オバボタル): L. biplagiata Motschulsky 1866
Lycidae (ベニボタル), net-winged beetle
Lycostomus Motschulsky 1861: L. modestus Motschulsky 1854 (ベニボタル)
Lycostomus Omethidae ホタルモドキ
Telegeusidae テレゲウシス
Superfam Dermestoidea カツオブシムシ
Dermestidae カツオブシムシ carpet beetle
Derodontidae マキムシモドキ
Nosodendridae ヒメトゲムシ
Superfam Bostrychoidea ナガシンクイ
Bostrychidae ナガシンクイ
Anobiidae シバンムシ: シバンムシ
Ptinidae ヒョウホンムシ
Superfam Lymexyloidea ツツシンクイ
Lymexylonidae ツツシンクイ
Superfam Cleroidea カッコウムシ
Trogossitidae コクヌスト
Cleridae カッコウムシ
Melyridae ジョウカイモドキ
Superfam Cucujoidea ヒラタムシ
Cryptophagidae キスイムシ
Helotidae オオキスイムシ
Rhizophagidae ネスイムシ
Nitidulidae ケシキスイムシ
Propalticidae ミジンキスイムシ
Biphyllidae ムクゲキスイムシ
Byturidae キスイモドキ
Cucujidae ヒラタムシ
Erotylidae オオキノコムシ
Sphindidae ヒメキノコムシ
Languriidae コメツキモドキ
Phalacridae ヒメハナムシ
Cerylonidae カクホソカタムシ
Corylophidae ミジンムシ
Discolomidae ミジンムシダマシ
Coccinellidae テントウムシ lady beetle
Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus 1758 ナナホシテントウ
ladybird ladybird
Harmonia axyridis Pallas 1773 ナミテントウ, diverse mottles
Henosepilachna: H. vigintioctopunctata Fabricius 1775 ニジュウヤホシテントウ, H. vigintioctomaculata オオニジュウヤホシテントウ
ladybird Endomychidae テントウダマシ
Superfam Tenebrionoidea ゴミムシダマシ
Tenebrionidae ゴミムシダマシ
Lagriidae ハムシダマシ
Cephaloidae クビナガムシ
Meloidae ツチハンミョウ
Oedemeridae カミキリモドキ
Synchroidae ヒラタナガクチキ
Mycteridae ホソキカワムシ
Boridae ツヤキカワムシ
Salpingidae チビキカワムシ
Pyrochroidae アカハネムシ
Anthicidae アリモドキ
Euglenidae ニセクビホソムシ
Scraptiidae ハナノミダマシ
Superfam Chrysomeloidea ハムシ
= leaf beetle
longicorn Cerambycidae カミキリムシ, longhorn beetle
Subfam Cerambycinae Latreille 1802 (カミキリ)
Neocerambyx radde (Massicus raddei) ミヤマカミキリ, Aeolesthes chrysothrix (キマダラミヤマカミキリ), Kurarua rhopalophoroides (クビアカモモブトホソカミキリ), Rosalia batesi (ルリボシカミキリ), Purpuricenus temminckii (ベニカミキリ), Chloridolum japonicum (アカアシオオアオカミキリ), Chloridolum viride (ミドリカミキリ), Callidiellum rufipenne (ヒメスギカミキリ), Xylotrechus Chevrolat 1860: X. rufilius (クビアカトラカミキリ), X. cuneipennis (ウスイロトラカミキリ), X. undulatus Say 1824 (taken in Alaska), Cyrtoclytus caproides (キスジトラカミキリ), Kazuoclytus lautoides (ヤマトシロオビトラカミキリ)
Subfam Disteniinae (ホソカミキリ)
Subfam Lamiinae (フトカミキリ)
longicorn Subfam Lepturinae (ハナカミキリ)
Subfam Necydalinae (ホソバコバネカミキリ)
Subfam Parandrinae (ニセクワガタカミキリ)
Subfam Prioninae (ノコギリカミキリ)
Bruchidae (マメゾウムシ)
Callosobruchus chinensis L. (アズキゾウムシ)
Chrysomelidae ハムシ, leaf beetle
Subfam Chrysomelinae Latreille 1802 (ハムシ)
Linaeidea aenea aenea Linnaeus 1758 (ルリハムシ)
Chrysomela populi L. 1758 (ドロノキハムシ)
Chrysolina aurichalcea Mannerheim 1825 (ヨモギハムシ)
ST1 ST
Bilbug
Superfam Curculionoidea ゾウムシ
Anthribidae ヒゲナガゾウムシ
Apionidae ホソクチゾウムシ
Attelabidae オトシブミ
Brenthidae ミツギリゾウムシ
Curculionidae ゾウムシ billbug, elephant beetle
Rhynchophoridae オサゾウムシ
Scolytidae キクイムシ bark beetle
Platypodidae ナガキクイムシ
Superfam Scirtoidea マルハナノミ
Helodidae マルハナノミ
Eucinetidae マルハナノミダマシ
Clambidae タマキノコムシモドキ
Superfam Artematopodoidea ナガハナノミダマシ
Artematopodoidae ナガハナムシダマシ
Superfam Dascilloidea ナガフナガタムシ
Rhipiceridae クシヒゲムシ

Order Lepidoptera (鱗翅目)


= butterflies + moths

Suborder Aglossata

Superfam Agathiphagoidea
Agathiphagidae

Suborder Zeugloptera コバネガ

Superfam Micropterigoidea コバネガ
Micropterigidae コバネガ

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Superfam Heterobathmioidea
Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Superfam Papilionoidea アゲハチョウ
Papilionidae アゲハチョウ
Subfam Baroniinae ウラギンアゲハ(メキシコアゲハ)
Subfam Parnassiinae ウスバアゲハ(ウスバシロチョウ)
Subfam Papilioninae アゲハチョウ
Pieridae シロチョウ
Subfam Pseudopontiinae マルバネシロチョウ
Subfam Dismorphiinae コバネシロチョウ(トンボシロチョウ)
Subfam Coliadinae モンキチョウ
Colias Fabricius 1807 モンキチョウ (C. erate Esper 1805, モンキチョウ eastern pale clouded 6ellow - poliographus Motschulsky 1860, subspecies in Japan)
Pieris brassicae Subfam Pierinae シロチョウ
Aporia ミヤマシロチョウ, Anthocharis ツマキチョウ, Delias カザリシロチョウ, Hebomoia ツマベニチョウ, Pereute ベニオビシロチョウ, Pieris モンシロチョウ (P. rapae L. 1758 = small cabbage white モンシロチョウ, P. brassicae L. 1758 = large cabbage white オオモンシロチョウ) Zizeeria maha
Lycaenidae シジミチョウ
Subfam Lycaeninae ベニシジミ
Subfam Polymmatinae ヒメシジミ
Zizeeria maha Kollar 1844 (ヤマトシジミ, pale grass blue), seasonal changes in the wing color and design, south to Honshu
Subfam Lyphyrinae アリノスシジミ
Subfam Miletinae アシナガシジミ(カニアシシジミ)
Subfam Poritiinae ホウセキシジミ(キララシジミ)
Subfam Theclinae ミドリシジミ
Subfam Lipteninae コケシジミ
Subfam Curetinae ウラギンシジミ
Riodinidae シジミタテハ
Subfam Styginae
Subfam Hamearrinae
Subfam Euselasiinaeベニモンシジミタテハ
Subfam Corrachiinae
Subfam Riodininae シジミタテハ
Nymphalidae タテハチョウ
Subfam Charaxinae フタオチョウ: Polyura eudamippus weismanni フタオチョウ
Subfam Marpesiinae イシガケチョウ: Cyrestis thyodamas kumamotensis イシガケチョウ
Subfam Apaturinae コムラサキ: Apatura metis substituta コムラサキ, Sasakia charonda charonda オオムラサキ
Subfam Biblinae カバタテハ: Ariadne ariadne pallodoor カバタテハ
Subfam Argynninae ヒョウモンチョウ
Subfam Pseudoeigrolinae ヒョウモンモドキ(スミナガシ)(sometimes treated as family): Melitaea regama ウスイロヒョウモンモドキ
Subfam Limenitinae イチモンジチョウ
Subfam Nymphalinae タテハチョウ(ヒオドシチョウ): Hypolimnas bolina L. リュウキュウムラサキ, Inachis io geisha L. クジャクチョウ
Hypolimnas bolina Inachis io (Subfam Heliconiinae ドクチョウ, Subfam Acraeinae ホソチョウ, Subfam Calinaginae クビワチョウ: hitherto-known taxa)
Satyridae ジャノメチョウ
Subfam Satyrinae ジャノメチョウ
Subfam Amathusiinae ワモンチョウ
Subfam Morphinae モルフォチョウ
Subfam Brassolinae フクロウチョウ
Danaidae マダラチョウ
Subfam Danainae マダラチョウ
Subfam Ithomiinae トンボマダラ
Superfam Hesperioidea セセリ(チョウ)
Hesperiidae セセリチョウ
Subfam Coeliadinae アオバセセリ
Subfam Megathyminae イトランセセリ
Subfam Pyrrhopyginae ピロピゲ
Subfam Pyrginae チャマダラセセリ
Subfam Heteropterinae チョウセンキボシセセリ
Subfam Trapezitinae トラペジテス
Subfam Hesperiinae セセリチョウ

Suborder Glossata 有吻

Superfam Sesioidea スカシバガ
Sesiidae スカシバガ
no scales → clear-winged moths
Synanthedon scoliaeformis japonica Špatenka et Arita, 1992 ST
Superfam Hedyloidea シャクガモドキ
Hedylidae シャクガモドキ
One genus that is Macrosoma シャクガモドキ
Superfam Bombycoidea カイコガ
Bombycidae カイコガ
Bombyx mori Linnaeus 1758 (カイコ), silk moth or silkworm
Sphingidae スズメガ
Subfam Smerinthinae ウチスズメ
ST Callambulyx (C. tatarinovii gabyae Bryk 1946 ウンモンスズメ), Marumba (M. gaschkewitschii echephron Boisduval 1875 モモスズメ), Phyllosphingia, Smerinthus Latreille 1802 (S. planus planus Walker 1856 ウチスズメ)
Meganoton analis Meganoton Boisduval 1875 (M. analis scribae Austaut 1911 エゾシモフリスズメ)

Moth ()

Some larvae have poisonous bristles, which induce dermatitis with (severe) pain, itchiness and/or swelling when touched. Wash your skin with tap water without scratching.
Euproctis subflava Bremer (ドクガ): larva/imago - toxic
E. pseudoconspersa Strand 1914 (チャドクガ): imago - toxic, not distributed in Hokkaido
Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler (マツカレハ): larva - toxic
Cnidocampa flavescens (Walker) (イラガ): larva - toxic
Artona funeralis Butler (タケノホソクロバ): larva - toxic
ナシイラガ ナシイラガ

Order Hymenoptera (膜翅目)


bee after Jurassic

Suborder Symphyta 広腰亜目

Superfam Xyeloidea ナギナタハバチ
Superfam Megalodontoidea ヒラタハバチ
Superfam Siricoidea キバチ
Superfam Orussoidea ヤドリキバチ
Superfam Cephoidea クキバチ
Superfam Tenthredinoidea ハバチ
Cimbicidae W Kirby 1837 (コンボウハバチ)
130 species in 6 or 20 genera in the world
Abia Leach 1817 (コンボウハバチ): A. akebiae (Takeuchi 1931) (アケビコンボウハバチ) China - south to Honshu, A. metallica Mocsary 1909 (ネジロコンボウハバチ) China - eastern Siberia - Japan, A. triangularis (Takeuchi 1931) (フトオビコンボウハバチ) south to Honshu
Orientabia Malaise 1934 (ルリコンボウハバチ): O. iridescens (Marlatt 1898) (アカガネコンボウハバチ) south to Honshu, O. japonica (Cameron 1887) (ルリコンボウハバチ), Siberia - Japan
Agenocimbex Rohwer 1910 (ホシアシブトハバチ): A. maculatus (Marlatt 1898) (ホシアシブトハバチ), south to Honshu
Leptocimbex Semenov 1896 (ヨウロウヒラクチハバチ): L. malaisei Takeuchi 1939 (マライセヒラクチハバチ) Honshu and Shikoku, L. yorofui (Marlatt 1898) (ヨウロウヒラクチハバチ), south to Honshu
Praia Wankowicz 1880 (シマコンボウハバチ): P. ussuriensis Malaise 1939 (シマコンボウハバチ), eastern Siberia - Japan

Suborder Apocrita 細腰亜目

Terebrantia 有錐類
Superfam Trigonaloidea カギガラバチ
Superfam Ichneumonoidea ヒメバチ
Superfam Evanoidea ヤセバチ
Superfam Cynipoidea タマバチ
Superfam Chalcidoidea コバチ
Superfam Proctotrupoidea シリボソクロバチ
Aculeata 有剣類
Superfam Bethyloidea アリガタバチ
Superfam Scolioidea ツチバチ
Superfam Formicoidea アリ
262 species in 62 genera in Japan
Formicidae Latreille 1809, ant
Camponotus Mayr 1861, carpenter ant: C. obscuripes Mayr 1878 (ムネアカオオアリ)
Lasius japonicus Santschi 1941 (トビイロケアリ), formerly L. niger L. 1758, black garden ant
ant symbiosis
Superfam Pompiloidea ベッコウバチ
Batozonellus annulatus Fabricius キオビクモバチ
Superfam Vespoidea スズメバチ
Vespa mandarinia Smith オオスズメバチ
Superfam Sphecoidea アナバチ
Superfam Apoidea ハナバチ

Order Diptera (双翅目)


two-winged flies,or true flies
> 100000 species, after Jurassic
fly
Larvae:
culiciform
head capsule present with chewing mouthparts
legs absent
vermiform (maggots)
without legs or a distinct head capsule
mouthparts reduced; only present as mouth hooks
Adult:
antennae filiform, stylate or aristage
mouthparts suctorial (haustellate)
mesothrax larger than pro-or metathorax
one pair of wings (front); hind wings reduced (halteres)
tarsi five-segmented

Suborder Nematocera 長角 (Orthorrhapha 直縫)

Culicidae カ(蚊)
3146 spp in the world (Zavortink, 1990), [Culex, Aedes, Anopheles] = mosquito-complex
Subfam Toxorhynchitinae オオカ
Subfam Culicinae ナミカ
Culicini ナミカ族: Japan – Culex イエカ (C. pipiens pallens Coquillett アカイエカ, C. pipiens molestus Forskal チカイエカ), Aedesヤブカ (A. albopictus (Skuse) ヒトスジシマカ)
Sabethini ナガハシカ族
Subfam Anophelinae ハマダラカ
About 50 morpho-species – number of sibling species is more than that of morpho-species
Anopheles ハマダラカ, Bironella, Chagasis
Ceratopogonidae (punkie) (ヌカカ)
We hate punkie more than mosquito when we survey in Hokkaido.
Simuliidae (gnat or blackfly) (ブヨ)
Female only sucks blood. Severe itchness remain on the skin for a long period after bitten.
Cecidomyiidae (gall midges or gall gnats) (タマバエ)
Body length: 1-3 mm long
Antenna: long
Wing: covered with hair Larva: mostly ectoparasitism by utilizing insect or plant (developing insect gall)

a gall developed on Senecio cannabifolius

Subfam Cecidomyiinae
Subfam Lestremiinae
Subfam Porricondylinae
Temnostoma apiform

Suborder Brachycera 短角

Tabanidae (アブ)
Tabanus アブ gadfly or horse fly
× Severe pain may occur after stung. Watch out when you are in meadows and farms, because gadfly clings to cow and horse.
Stop sucking blood from a wound. I have ever felt nauseating without bottle-ache, because of sensitiveness. × Temnostoma apiform
Bombyliidae (ツリアブ, bee fly)
トラツリアブ Anastoechus nitidulus Fabricius 1794 (トラツリアブ), Bombylius major L. 1858 (ビロウドツリアブ)
Syrphidae Latreille 1802 (ハナアブ, hoverfly)
Subfam Syrphinae (ヒラタアブ)
Subfam Milesiinae (ナミハナアブ)
Phytomia zonata (オオハナアブ)
Subfam Microdontinae (アリノスアブ)

Suborder Cyclorrhapha 環縫

Drosophila ショウジョウバエ fruit fly

D. virilis (クロショウジョウバエ), D. melanogaster (キイロショウジョウバエ), D. immigrans (オオショウジョウバエ)

Calliphora クロバエ, ニクバエ

Aquatic insect (水生昆虫)


= water insects
living some portion of their life cycle in the water
Aquatic adaptation
  • simple diffusion over a relatively thin integument
  • temporary use of an air bubble
  • extraction of oxygen from water using a plastron or physical gill
  • storage of oxygen in hemoglobin molecules in hemolymph
  • taking oxygen from surface through breathing tubes (siphons)

*: four major taxa

Orders with aquatic or semiaquatic insects
Collembola (springtails)
Ephemeroptera* (mayflies)
Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies)
Plecoptera* (stoneflies)
Megaloptera (alderflies, fishflies and dobsonflies)
Neuroptera (lacewings)
Coleoptera (beetles)
Hemiptera (true bugs - water striders, giant water bugs)
Hymenoptera (ants and wasps
Diptera* (flies and mosquitoes)
Mecoptera (scorpionflies)
Lepidoptera (moths)
Trichoptera* (caddisflies)
ID keys in the aquatic larval stage
[with legs] → no → Diptera
__↓ yes__________________________(two tails)
[worm-like]________→ no → [three tails] → no → [two claws]
[without wing pads]____________↓ yes_______↙ no___↓ yes
[without long tails]____________Ephemeroptera___Plecoptera
__(with cases)
__↓ yes
Trichoptera
ID keys in the adult stage
[two pair of wings] → no (1 pair) → Diptera
__↓ yes
[hairy wings]_________→ no → [transparent wings]_______→ no → P
[tent-like folded wings]________ [much smaller hind wings]
__(no tails)___________________(apparent tails)
__↓ yes______________________↓ yes
Trichoptera_______________Ephemeropteera

Plecoptera
• well-horizontally folded wings
• two claws
• hind and fore wings almost same size

[safety manual memorandum, field equipment, poisonous plant]

Vermin (害虫)


Vermin in field work: nocent insects that decline the effectivness of work
Nocent insects that are directly and/or indirectly affect human health

bee/wasp, gadfly, gnat or blackfly, mosquito, moth, punkie, rove beetle, tick (non-insect)

Mosquito ()


mosquito1 mosquito2 [1] A knee of Dr. Sato on July 14, 1995, when we surveyed vegetation on ice wedges along Kolyma River. Since I took the photo after many mosquitos escaped, the enemies were not so many. [2] It was fine weather near Kolyma River on July 18, 1995. I measured methane flux with Drs. Sato and formely JR Hokkaido Campaign Girl. We prepared so-called fully-protective wear, including mosquito netting, raincoat, thick gloves, and rubber boots.
Action

Fully protective wear is the best way for health, although we feel sunsick. However, we are exhausted for a short time as if we took a sauna.
We usually put DEET (C12H17NO), that is a super-strong rejectant, on our skins when we stay in Alaska. DEET melts plastic. In fact, a band of my wristwatch was denatured. However, we can not stop using DEET like a drug after we understand the overwhelming efficacy.
Although we should seek immediate medical attention if the symptom is serious, we may not be able to go any clinics ASAP when we stay in the study sites. It is better that we should prepare accurate medicines.

Bee/Wasp (ハチ)


Most bees (wasps and hornets) do not always sting people. However, bees may attack people to protect their nests. Watch out during the Bon holidays and fall when the colony size of hornets increases in the nest.

Differences between bee and wasp
beebothwasp
Stingerhoneybee workers: stinger is pulled from the abdomen
other bees: live to sting again
have backward-pointed barbs on stinger to penetrate victimsmall barbs; stinger can be removed from victim; wasp lives to sting again
Bodyrounder body, usually appears hairynarrow junction between thorax and abdomenusually slender and smooth
Leghairyfew hairs
Foodfeed on pollen and nectarpredators or parasites of other insects, or scavengers

I poked something like a dung by a stick in Abashiri, because I thought the insects around the dung were flies. I was slow to realize that it was wasp! Oh boy.

First Aid for Bee and Insect Stings

nest1 nest2
[1] A wasp nest hidden in a Rosa rugosa bush in Field trip for life environments conducted at Kunebetsu Seacoast, Hokuto City, on September 25 2009. More nests were found. [2] We found out two nests at the same place on September 22 2010.

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