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(Upload on January 3 2020) [ 日本語 | English ]

Wild vegetable (山菜)






Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

"How are the tastes", see Japanse page
Table. Japanese and scientific names of wild vegetables, I have ever eaten, distributed in Hokkaido.
Allium victorialis ssp. platyphyllum (ギョウジャニンニク/アイヌネギ)
Amphicarpaea bracteata ssp. edgeworthii var. japonica (ヤブマメ)
Anemone flaccida (ニリンソウ/フクベラ)
ウド Aralia cordata
Aralia elata (タラノキ/タランボ))
Arctium lappa (ゴボウ)
Corydalis ambigua (エゾエンゴサク)
Erythronium japonicum (カタクリ)
Lilium cordatum var. glehnii (オオウバユリ)
Osmunda japonica (ゼンマイ)
Polygonatum odoratum var. maximowiczii (オオアマドコロ)
Polygonum sachalinense (オオイタドリ)
Rumex acetosa (スイバ)
Smilacina japonica (ユキザサ/アズキナ)
Trapa japonica (ベカンベ/ヒシ)
Matteuccia struthiopteris (クサソテツ/コゴミ)

[ wild vegetable | poisonous plant | crop ]
Plants and Plant communities in Japan, Field training on integrated environmental research (flora and fauna)

索引

Poisonous plant (有毒植物)


= toxic plants
Toxin ()
all the chemical substances that negatiely influende the activies of livning organisms, in particular, human
Toxin (毒素)
chemical compounds produced by living organisms. Any naturally-produced poison is a toxin. Toxins are generally made of small molecules, peptides and/or proteins.
Toxoid (類毒素)

a chemical substances denatured by chemical reactions, reduced or removed the toxicity, and retained the activities as antitoxin

Evolution of protection on plants

toxins are evoluved for both defensive and offensive attacks to herbivores
→ plants possessing a property injurious to animals, including human

Touch, e.g., climbing sumac
Eating, e.g., aconite

Representatives of poisonous plants

Mandragora officinarun L., M. autumnalis Spreng., and M. caulescens Clarke (マンドラゴラ, mandrake or loveapple), Solanaceae

perennial herb, native to Mediterranean region
branched roots image man → various falk tales and beliefs root → alkaloid, fatty oil, etc.

cultivated for precious medicine (past) → pyretolysis, pain relief, emesis, purgative (high toxicity)

Hyoscyamus niger L. (ヒヨス), Solanaeae
20-80 cm high (flowering = May-September)
native to Europe, Western Asia and North Africa
seed → alkaloid

medicine as pain relief, sedation (for stomach cramps, gastric pains, kidney disease, etc. (strongly toxic)

Atropa belladonna L. (オオカミナスビ)
Leaf, root: extracts are used for medicines and ingredient of manufacturing atropine sulphate that has the effect of pupillary enlargement (highly toxic)
Artemisia absinthium L.(ニガヨモギ)
no descriptions on toxity → containing absinthe, which is bitter glycoside, in the whole plant
stems and branches → absinthe or absinth (アブサン酒), which is a strong liqueur
Colchicum autumnale L. (イヌサフラン)
Seeds and bulbs: containing colchicine, one of the alkaloids (highly toxic)
Euphorbia pekinensis Pupr. var. japonensis Makino (タカトウダイ), Euphorbiaceae
flowering = June-July
perennial, native to Japan (south to Honshu) - Korea

highly poisonous → contact = skin inflammation, sinus infection, uptake = troat upswell, blatts

Achillea alpina L. (ノコギリソウ)
containing chamazulene, etc. (essences) → pain relief, arrest of bleeding, etc. → paste the flour to affected part
Oak Nicotiana tabacum L. (タバコ), Solanaceae
perennial with 2 m high, flowering = summer
native to the tropical American Continent → widespread in temperate and tropical regions for producing cigarettes

dried leaf: nicotine and the other alkaloids → smoking (喫煙)
nicotine: nerve palsy stimulating through sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves, and central nervous system, such as medulla oblongata and cerebellum
Slight = headache, vomit, etc.
Severe = vision disability, convulusion, coma, cardiac failure, etc.

Lactuca virosa L. (トゲハニガナ, 菊萵苣 きくぢさ), great lettuce (chn = 萵苣(わきょ) → 毒萵苣 = L. villosa)
annual, flowering = July-September
native to central and southern Europe, and northern Africa

emulsion containing in the whole plants = lactucarium: antitussive, hypnogenesis, pain reliever (past) → high drug toxicity (not used in the present)
↔ lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

Illicium religiosum Sieb.et Zucc. (シキミ)
star-shaped fruit containing strong poison
→ emesis, diarrhea, breathing disorder, etc. after feeding (occasionally death)
anisatin (C15H20O8), neo-anisatin, etc.
Strychnos nux-vomica L. (マチン, strychine), Loganiaceae
evergreen tree ≈ 10 m high
native between India and tropical northern Australia

containing strychnine, one of the alkaloids
→ minute amount = stimulant ↔ mass administration (deadly poison) = rigidity and twitch, etc.

Helleborus niger L. (クリスマスローズ)
Deadly poisons containing the whole plant → emesis, diarrhea, and/or irregular heartbeat after dosing
strong nauseant and cardiotonic (past)
Anacardium occidentale L. (カシュー, cashew), Anacardiaceae
evergreen tree
native to West India - Central American Continent

Bark containing tannin, fresh seed: anacardic acids
→ irritated skin
cashew nut shell liquid → crude material of cashew paint, cashew apple (edible)

Many more!

Poisonous plants distributed in Hokkaido
Actaea asiatica (ルイヨウショウマ)
Conium maculatum (ドクニンジン)
Chelidonium majus var. asiaticum (クサノオウ)
Datura metel (チョウセンアサガオ)
Disporum sessile (ホウチャクソウ)
Papaver somniferum (ケシ opium poppy)
Phryma leptostachya (ハエドクソウ)
Phytolacca esculenta (ヤマゴボウ)
Ranunculus japonicus (ウマノアシガタ)
Scoparia japonica (ハシリドコロ)
Solanum nigrum (イヌホオズキ)
Veratrum spp. (シュロソウ属, バイケイソウ)
Xanthium occidentale (オオオナモミ)
The three major poisonous plants of Japan (日本三大有毒植物)
These three species are distributed in Hokkaido.

Oriental medicine (漢方)


≈ traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or traditional medicine
A medical system that has been used for thousands of years to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. It is based on the belief that qi (気, the body's vital energy) flows along meridians (channels) in the body and keeps a person's spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical health in balance.
Oriental medicine aims to restore the body's balance and harmony between the natural opposing forces of yin (陰) and yang (陽), which can block qi and cause disease.
Treatments: acupuncture, diet, herbal therapy, meditation, physical exercise, and massage
oriental herb (Chinese herb and Chinese herbal medicine) (漢方薬)
medical herb (medicinal herb and drug plant →) (薬草)

herb doctor (薬草医)

Buzzing or tinnitus (耳鳴り)
no miracle oriental drug

Agricultural science or agriscience (農学)


Agriculture: farming and the methods that are used to raise and look after crops and animals
Agricultural science: broad multidisciplinary field of science that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture

History of agriculture (農学史/農業史)

Foraging (狩猟採集)
Hunter-gatherer: plant food = 60-70% + animal food = 30-40%

except a few, such as Eskimo (depending 100% on animal food)

1930 Yanovsky: 1100 plants used as food for north American Indian
1950 Steward J: 7 of the 19 tribes of Indian in Great Basin

seeded non-domesticated seeds
semi-cultivated Dioscoria spp.

Such seeding behavior is also observed in Andaman Islands, Australia and Africa

1968 Lee: !Kung Bushman in Dobe, South Africa

1.9-3.2 dy/wk and 6 hr/day for food acquisition - 12-19hr/wk
staple diet = mongongo nut (harvesting all year)

rich in calorie and protein (300 seeds/day = 215 g/day)

1968 Lee & De Vore: during famine

Bushmen living in desert taught wild foods to agricultural people

1969 Jardin: 1500 plants used as food in African wilderness
1975 Angel: tooth quality → foraging people > agricultural people
⇒ hard to find out why agriculture was applied widely
Worldwide
7000BC agricultural systems developed in various regions

Ex. Near East, South America, New Guinea, and probably southeastern Asia
⇒ several origins

Near East and Europe
Mesopotamia: Fertile Crescent (肥沃な三日月地帯)

alluvian plain along Tigris-Euphrates River
dominated by oak forests when these are natural ecosystems

BC20000-BC9000 Mesolithic age
BC12500-BC9500 Natufian culture (Mesolithic age in Palestine)

harvested wild crops = agricultre did not develop

BC12000 drier than the present

probably no oak forests - no records of oak pollens

BC9000 oak forests established - oak pollens detected
> BC7500 Tepe Ali Cosh in Iran and Cayönü in Turkey

accllimation of plants and domestication
Tepe Ali Cosh

no horn on the sheep
Einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L. (Triticum コムギ), Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schrank ex Schübl.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L. オオムギ)

BC8000-BC5000 Neolithic age

Major crops: barley in Middle and Near East until Ancient Greece

Developing rural communities

> BC7000 Beibha (Jordan)
BC6750 Jarmo (Iraq)
BC6500 Tell Amado (Syria)

Spread of agriculture to Europe: two pathways

1. mediterranean - Spain (BC5000)
2. Danube River - Rhein River - Holland (BC4000)

BC3500 number of oak pollens sharply increased

became close to the present vegetation

Mediterranean region
≈BC40 Diodorus Siculus (or Diodorus of Sicily), Greek historian

described the origin of agriculture

+ Bible Ex. the fall of Adam and Eve
German
1727 Friedrich Wilhelm I: Kameralwissenschaft
1769 Beckmann J: Grundsatzeder deutschen Landwirtschaft

Allgemeine Theil (general agriscience) + Besondere Theil (specific agriscience)

Thaer AD
Liebich
Schultze FG
England
Walter of Henley
Blith W
Tull
18th c. agricultural revolution
Gilbert JH
Johnston JFW
Africa
Characterized by non-center evolution
1979 Wendorf et al: discovered charred crop kernels

BC16000 a dig along Nile River in southern Egypt
BC13000 abrasive stone tool

BC9000-BC7000 neolithic pluvial
BC6000-BC5000 humans widespread in Sahara Desert
BC5000 cattle breeding
Crops: wild sorghum (Sorghum) - distributed in Sub-Sahara Africa
BC3000 Mesopotamia: large-scaled irrigation to remove salt damage

1958 Jacobsen & Adamds: salt accumulation in crop lands

BC2750-BC2250 pyramid age in Egypt

channels and walls, constructed as public project

China
BC4000-BC3000 Yang-shao culture (仰韶文化), the earliest agriculture

Major food: Setaria (millet)
culture developed in Mesolithic age (Cheng 1966)

BC3000-BC1900 Lung-shan culture (竜山文化)

Ex. Feng-pi-tou (鳳鼻頭) in Taiwan (Chang 1969)
BC5000 slash-and-burn agriculture
BC3000 rice introduced

ShenNung (農神)
BC 3rd Lü-shih ch'un-ch'iu (呂氏春秋)
BC 1st (氾勝之書)
≈ 540 (斉民要術) 賈思勰
1313 (農書) 王禎
Japan (日本)
Jomon forests
Chronicles of Japan (日本書紀)
Oceania and southeastern Asia
BC11000-BC5500 Hoabinhian Culture

BC8000-BC7000 Spirit Cave, dug by Gorman - presence of agriculture (controversial)

1977 Gorman: rice cultivation developed prior to BC6000

History of rice cultivation (稲作)
USA
South America
Garcilaso de la Vega - similar with the myth of Mediterranean region
1977 Bray: Tuhuacan valley in Mexico

wild type appeared prior to cultivated type

> BC6000 MacNeish in Peru: cultivated peas
[ tomato ( トマト )]

Crop (作物)


Plants and fungi grown to be harvested for economic purposes, such as food, fodder, and fuel.
  • Avena sativa L. (エンバク, oat)
  • Colocynthis citrullus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Naka) (スイカ, 西瓜, water melon, agushi or egusi) in Cucurbitaceae, commonly cultivated in Ghana
  • Glycine max (L.) Merr. ssp. max (ダイズ, 大豆, soybean) → Glycine soja (ツルマメ): the original strain
  • Hordeum vulgare L. (オオムギ, s.l.)
  • Lactuca sativa L. (チシャ/レタス)
  • Panicum miliaceum L. (キビ, 黍, millet or common millet) in Poaceae, commonly cultivated in Ghana
  • Vegetables in Solanaceae spp. (ナス科の野菜)
  • Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (ササゲ, 六角豆, black-eyed pea or California black-eyed pea) in Fabaeae, commonly cultivated in Ghana
Table. Optimal pH (pH that is best for plant growth)
pH: plants
5.0-5.5: rice, oat, sweet potato, water melon, sunchoke, tea
5.5-6.5: corn, buckwheat, tobacco, radish, lily, Japanese yam
5.5-7.0: wheat, carrot, turnip, burdock, aroid, tomato, egg plant
6.0-7.5: rye, soybean, azuki bean, green onion, white clover, sunflower
6.5-8.5: barley, spinach, potato, astragalus, onion

Vegetable

Allium (ネギ類)
Solanum (ナス類)
High-yield plant
High-yield vegetable, HYV
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