(Upload on July 18 2018) [ 日本語 | English ]

Mankind (人類)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? / D'où Venons Nous. Que Sommes Nous. Où Allons Nous (Paul Gauguin)


-AD500: Orient, China → national unification
Ex. Egypt: the eighteenth to twnty-first royal dynasty

→ classified human into four kinds: Egyptian, Assyrian, Black and Lydian

AD500-1390 (西欧: 中世): interpretation of human based on the Bible
prejudiced veiw of human (misconception)
invasion of Mongolian →
overseas advance of churchman (ecclesiastic) + activation of trades by merchant

→ change in the view of human

13-14C (the Age of Discovery)
Columbus: discovering the New World = discovering American native (Indian) (people who made a voyage to the New World were present before the Columbus discovery)
→ persecution became violent to Indian afte the discovery
→ "Indian is not human", based on Biblicism

arising the conscious of humans who have differnt races, cultures and/or lives ↔ filling with a feeling of superiority to humsn who were in undeveloped regions or with rudeness

research on the characteristics of human body became popular
Tyson Edward (1651-1708, Britain): comparative anatomy of monkey and human

Pygmy is intermadiate between monkey and human

be laughed out of town in the present
breakthrough at anthropology level that the association between monkey and human was found out at that time

Carl von Linnaeus: Systema Natureæ

Classification of human: establishing a group with monkey and sloth

First edition: regionally classified
Tenth edition: bundling into one group

Comte de Buffon present in the same age

Johann F. Blumenbach (1752-1840): "On the Nature of Mankaind"

the father of natural taxonomy
classification of human

  1. biological characteristics: Monglian, Malayan, American, Ethiopian, Caucasian
    Human race (人種): classified only by body characteristics = biological concept
  2. Ethnic group: classified by cultural chracteristics (Ex. language, modes, tradition = human race and ethnic group are not persistent

advance in natural anthropology: classification of human, based on cultural characteristics, worldwide

Darwin Charles: "Origin of Species" (1859)

established the fundamental syllabus of cultural anthropology

1900- (the Second World War) Ruth Fulton Benedict (1887-1948): The chrysanthemum and the sword: patterns of Japanese culture

= established applied anthropology

Human (人類)

Present biological definition: a member of the primate genus Homo, especially a member of the species

↔ different from social sciences

Kroeber Alfred L (1876-1960, USA), cultural anthropologist

+ archaeology / anthropological linguistics
critial point theory: huge difference between human and the other animals is the development of brain cortex

Dart Raymond A (1893-1988)

1924 rescued from a limestone quarry in Taungs, Bechuanaland,

South Africa, by a labor - child

1925 named Australopithecus africanus

Broom Robert

1936 rescued the adult fossil at Sterkfontein

Broom R & Robinson John

1947 rescued the pelvis → bipedal or walked upright = mankind

Primate (霊長類)

anthropoid (類人猿): species in superfamily Hominoidea excluding Homo

≠ the taxon of biological unit

Fig. Phylogenetic tree showing the lineage of living primates.
Superfam Hominoidea (ヒト): no tail Classical taxonomy: ono species in one genus, Homo
Recent taxonomy: three negenra
Gorilla Geoffroy 1852 (ゴリラ)
G. gorilla Western gorilla

gorilla Savage 1847, Western lowland gorilla
diehli Matschie 1904, Cross River gorilla

G. beringei, Eastern gorilla

beringei Matschie 1903, Mountain gorilla
graueri Matschie 1914, Esatern lowland gorilla

Pan (チンパンジー): P. troglodytes (Blumenbach, 1799)
Homo ヒト: H. sapiens sapiens, man

1. Human as vertetbrates (脊椎動物としてのヒト)

a. Water (blood - fluid - water)
Table. Relative abundance of elements when Na is 100%.

        Human Dog Frog Cod  Shark Lobster Jellyfish Seawater
Na      100    100  100   100   100      100        100       100
K        6.75   6.62    -     9.10  4.61     3.73       5.18      3.11
Ca      3.10   2.80 3.17  3.93  2.71     4.86       4.13      3.91
Mg      0.70   0.76 0.79  1.41  2.46     1.72      11.4      12.1
Cl       120    139  136   150   166      171        186       181
CO32+                                                 6.7        13.2      20.9

blood component ≈ ancient seawater ⇒ blood was formed in Archean?

2. Human as mammals (哺乳類としてのヒト)

Table. Mechanical factors and corresponding body structures improving adaptation to cursorial (running) or graviporal (walking) locomotion

cursorial - step rate↑    - moment of interia↓

~ thinning and elongation of distal limb segements

                             - torque↑

~ effective muscle mass relative↑
~ freedom of joints↓

              - step length↑ - rotation angle↑

~ limb joint flexion↑
~ trunk flexion↑

                             - rotation radius↑

~ limb length↑
~ trunk flextion↑

graviportal - antigravity↑ - torque↑

~ muscle power arm relative↑
~ effective muscle mass relative↑
~ freedom of joints↑

                                       - rotation angle↑ ~ limb joint flexion↓

                   - step length↑ - rotation radius↑ ~ limb length⇅

[ Fossils of primates ]

Fossil anthropology (化石人類学)

Prosimian hypothesis (原猿仮説)
Primates → Prosimii ex. Tupaiiformes → Anthropoidea ex. Homo sapiens

male and female / night or day working

Principles of social structure on Primates
Anthropoidea hypothesis (真猿仮説)
The society of apes in the New World
The society in family Cercopithecidae (guenon)
Kenyapithecus (ケニアピテクス)
1951 Le Gros Clark & Leakey: fossils in northern Victoria Lake, Africa

named Sivapithecus africanusKenyapithecus africanus
Morphological traits - reject "upright walking" ≠ human

Ramapithecus (ラマピテクス)
1910 Pilgrim: discovered Dryopithecus punjabicus in India

1937 Lewis: dental arches similar with Ramapithecus = human-like

separated to Bramapithecus punjabicus

1963 Simons: the fossil = RamapithecusR. punjabicus

1932 Yale North-India Expedition (エール大学北インド古生物学調査隊)

investigated Siwaliks Series in Siwalik Hills
R. brevirostris

           Ape            Laetoli-Hadar           Hominid


Fig. Upper-jaw dental arches and diastemata of apes (chimpanzee), man (Australopithecus afarensis in Laetoli and Hadar) and modern man (Australopithecus and Homo) (Howells 1959)
Ardipithecus (アルディピテクス)
1974 Johanson D: Lucy discovered in Ethiopia, a layer in 3.2 Mya

named from "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, Beatles"
= Australopithecus afarensis (アファール猿人)

Lucy = a female with 130 cm in height

Leakey Family

Leakey, Louis Seymour Bazett (1903-1972)
Leakey, Mary Douglas (1913-1996), spouse of Louis
Leakey, Richard Erskine Frere (1944-2022), son of Louis
Leakey, Meave G. (1942-), spouse of Richard
Leakey, Louise (1972-), daughter of Richard

1931 start the excavation in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
1959 discovered human-like fossils
Australopithecus (猿人)
A. anamensis (アナム猿人)
A. afarensis (アファール猿人)

    Chimpanzee           Australopithecus        Modern human plevis
Fig. Pelvis side view, front facing to the right. (Howells 1959)

A. kadabba (カダッバ猿人): 5.8-5.2 Mya discovered in Ethiopia in 2001
A. ramidus (ラミダス猿人): 4.4 Mya discovered in Ethiopia in 1992
Population dynamics
Number of fossil samples increased →
1971 McKinley KR: estimated average lifetime of Australopithecus

22.9 yrs for A. africanus    18.0 yrs for A. robustus

cf. 30-40 yers for present apes

Maturation of Australopithecus = 11 yrs

Chimpanzee and gorilla = 9 yrs ↔ modern human = 13.7 yrs

⇒ the demography is close to modern human except for the longevity

Homo (ヒト)

Homo erectus (原人)

1-0.2 Mya
Syn. Homo habilis (Syn. Australopithecus habilis)
Syn. Pithecanthropus erectus (ジャワ原人)
Syn. Sinanthropus pekinensis (北京原人)
Syn. Homo heidelbergensis (ハイデルベルグ人)

Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (ネアンデルタール人)

0.2-0.035 Mya
Syn. Homo neanderthalensis

Homo sapiens sapiens

0.05 Mya - present
Piltdown hoax (ピルトダウン人事件)

The origin of Japanese (日本人の起源)

Ofune Site (大船遺跡)

Pit dwellings (竪穴住居)
Pit dwellings were common during the Jomon Period. A round or rectangular floor was dug into the ground, and posts were erected to create the framework for the dwellings. Soil or reeds were used to thatch the fremework and create a roof over the dwellings, which contained a fire pit built onto the floor.
The pit dwellings found on the Ofune Site are relatively large, including some that range in length from 8 -11 m long and more than two meters deep. The fire pits appear to have gradually evolved over time, from being directly built onto the floor via to fire pits lined with pottery, and later to lined with stones. This restoration of a pit dwelling is based on information gathered from excavations, and employs wood from chestnut trees to reconstruct the framework used in pit dwellings.

Ofune Ofune

(Ofune Site on July 11 2018)

Cultural anthropology (文化人類学)

1871 "Primitive Culture" (Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett 1832–1917)

Proposed cultural evolutionism Culture (or civilization): integrated system of knowledge, belief (religion), art, ethic, law, custom, etc., obtained by the faculty of human who belong to the society

1931 "Science of Custom" (Benedict Ruth 1887-1948)

culture the is the univasal system of all the customs obtained by the members in the society, and is inherited socially

→ cultural anthropology
1946 "The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture (菊と刀)" (Benedict)
1949 "Male and female. A study of sexes in a changing world (女性と男性)" (Margaret Mead 1901-1978)

human development is depending on the cultural forms in belonging to the tribe and/or rations more than on the physical forms

human population - subsistence contrast
1949 "Social structure" (Murdock MG 1897-1985)

community: face to face association < band: nomadic
village: fixative, concentrared residential buildings, developing central parts
neighborhood: fixative, sporadic residential buildings, lacking coherence

Ethnology (ethnics, cultural anthropology) (民族学)

ethno- = nation; race
Ethnobiology (民族生物学)
Ethnobotany (民族植物学)
Ethnomusicology (民族音楽学), etc.

Ethnology (民族学)

≈ ethnics, cultural anthropology    ☛ Ainu Culture (plant)
Ex. Aborigine = Aboriginal Australian and indigenous Australians
Australian Continent - Tasmania
1974 discovered a fossil, Mungo Man (Lake Mungo 3), 40 kya

painted by red ocher - burial ritual

Kakadu cave paintings: x-ray technique, four phases (1-4)
1. pre-retreat phase; terrestrial animals
2. retreat phase (7-6 kya): large fish, freshwater and seawater animals
3. freshwater phase: goose
4. contact phase: Indonesian fishers and sailboats

[ Japan | 日本史 ]

Oriental history (東洋史)

Iron Road (鉄の道)

the routes of iron transportation (in central Asia)
Steppe Route (草原の道)
= 2000 years earlier than Silk Road
≈650 Khazar established

Silk Road (絹の道)

Oasis town (オアシス都市): important locations for commerce and cultural interchange
Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus script - unidentified
BC2500-BC1900 Mohenjo-daro (Sindh, Pakistan):

a big common tub - used for balneum bath as religious ceremony

Ancient MervMarw, Mary (メルブ)
the largest remains in Karakum Desert (world heritage)


BC3000-BC1500 Indus Civilization: Moenjo-daro, Harappa

high crop productivity supported by flooding
the urbans depressed with decreasing flodding

BC322-BC185 Maurya dynasty (マウリヤ朝)

Magadha (BC682-BC185)
Gupta Empire (BC320-550), unified northern India


rice production
BP16000-3000 Yangtze Civilization (長江文明)
BC10600?-1400 Yellow River civilization

developed by loess (黄土) = suitable for agriculture

Pre-imperial or Ancient
BC c.2070-c.1600 Xia (夏)
BC c.1600-c.1046 Yin (殷) or Shang (商)

bronze casting + using characters

BC c.1046-c.256 Zhou (周)

BC770-BC403 Chunqiu (春秋)

Great Wall (of China) (万里の長城)
BC7C: initial stage
BC214: pormoted by Qin

the legend of Lady Meng Jiang (孟姜女伝説)

Ming Era: constructed most parts
BC221-BC206 Qin (秦): Shi Huangdi (始皇帝), only 15 years …

BC232-BC202 Xiang Yu (項羽)
BC247/256-BC195 Liu Bang (劉邦)

BC202-AD220 Han (漢)

BC206-AD8 Former Han (前漢)
Emperor Wu (武帝, BC156-BC87)

exclusive = salt, tea, iron, alcohol, etc.
(salt had been exclusive until the late Ming)

AD25-220 Laer Han (後漢)

eunuch (宦官) - seize political power
184 Yellow Turban Rebellion (黄巾の乱)

Loulan (桜蘭, Kroraina): close to Lop Nor Lake in Tarim Basin - expanded

220-280 Three Kingdoms (Wei, Shu and Wu)
266-420 Jin (晋)
420-589 Northern and Southern Dynasties
581-618 Sui (隋)
581–604 Emperor Wen (文)

598-614 military campaigns against Goguryeo

604–617 Emperor Yang (煬); expedition and civic undertaking - failure
617–618 Emperor Gong (恭)
618-907 Tang (唐)

Emperor Xuanzong (玄宗皇帝, 685-762)
Yang Guifei (楊貴妃, 719-756)
859-860 Wang Shi Rebellion (裘甫の乱)
868-869 Pang Xun Rebellion (龐勛の乱)
874-884 Huang Chao Rebellion (黄巣の乱)

907-979 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十国)

916-1125 Liao (遼)

1004 starting expedition against the Northern Song
1005 Chanyuan Treaty - peace negotiation by restitution from Song

960-1279 Song (宋)

960–1127 Northern Song
1127–1279 Southern Song
1038-1227 Western Xia (西夏)

1271-1368 Yuan ()

1351 Red Turban Rebellion (紅巾の乱)
+ flooding, epidemic and inflation

1368-1644 Ming ()

1406 the Forbidden City (紫禁城) = Gugong (故宮)

1421-1912 used as imperial palace (exclusive)

1616-1912 Qing (清)


Wiman Joseon (衛満朝鮮) BC195?-BC108
Goguryeo (高句麗) BC37–AD668
Baekje(百済) BC18–AD660: origin = Mahan (馬韓)
Silla(新羅) BC57–AD935: origin = Shinhan (辰韓)

660 destroyed Baekje with Tang
668 destroyed Goguryeo with Tang
676 excluded Tang from Korean Peninsula = unified Korea

Mimana(任那) or Gaya(伽耶) confederacy AD42–562

Benkan(弁韓), southernmost Korea

North–South States (南北朝)
Later Silla (Unified Silla, 統一新羅) 668–935
Balhae (渤海) 698–926

Hypothesis: destroyed by the eruption of Changbai Mountain - rejected (the eruption occurred after the demolition)

Later Three Kingdoms (後三国)
Late Baekje (後百済) 892–936
Late Goguryeo (Taebong 後高句麗) 901–918
Late Silla (新羅) 668–935
Goryeo dynasty (高麗) 918–1392
936 re-unified Korean Peninsula
Joseon (李氏朝鮮, 李朝) 1392–1897
Korean Empire (大韓帝国, 旧韓国) 1897–1910
Wang Geon (877-943, 太祖/高麗王): the founder
1910–1945 Japanese rule

Nomadic-herding culture (遊牧文化)

Southeastern Asia

Late 2C: Lin-yi (林邑/占城) - eastern Indochina, by maritime trading

7-10C battle with Vietnamese
13C    battlw with Khmerian