(Upload on July 18 2018) [ 日本語 | English ]

Mankind (人類)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? / D'où Venons Nous. Que Sommes Nous. Où Allons Nous (Paul Gauguin)


-AD500: Orient, China → national unification
Ex. Egypt: the eighteenth to twnty-first royal dynasty

→ classified human into four kinds: Egyptian, Assyrian, Black and Lydian

AD500-1390 (西欧: 中世): interpretation of human based on the Bible
prejudiced veiw of human (misconception)
invasion of Mongolian →
overseas advance of churchman (ecclesiastic) + activation of trades by merchant

→ change in the view of human

13-14C (the Age of Discovery)
Columbus: discovering the New World = discovering American native (Indian) (people who made a voyage to the New World were present before the Columbus discovery)
→ persecution became violent to Indian afte the discovery
→ "Indian is not human", based on Biblicism

arising the conscious of humans who have differnt races, cultures and/or lives ↔ filling with a feeling of superiority to humsn who were in undeveloped regions or with rudeness

researches on the characteristics of human body became popular
Tyson Edward (1651-1708, Britain): comparative anatomy of monkey and human

Pygmy is intermadiate between monkey and human

be laughed out of town in the present
breakthrough at anthropology level that the association between monkey and human was found out at that time

Carl von Linnaeus: Systema Natureæ

Classification of human: establishing a group with monkey and sloth

First edition: regionally classified
Tenth edition: bundling into one group

Comte de Buffon present in the same age

Johann F. Blumenbach (1752-1840): "On the Nature of Mankaind"

the father of natural taxonomy
classification of human

  1. biological characteristics: Monglian, Malayan, American, Ethiopian, Caucasian
    Human race (人種): classified only by body characteristics = biological concept
  2. Ethnic group: classified by cultural chracteristics (Ex. language, modes, tradition = human race and ethnic group are not persistent

advance in natural anthropology: classification of human, based on cultural characteristics, worldwide

Darwin Charles: "Origin of Species" (1859)

established the fundamental syllabus of cultural anthropology

1900- (the Second World War) Ruth Fulton Benedict (1887-1948): The chrysanthemum and the sword: patterns of Japanese culture

= established applied anthropology

Human (人類)

Present biological definition: a member of the primate genus Homo, especially a member of the species

↔ different from social sciences

Kroeber Alfred L (1876-1960, USA), cultural anthropologist

+ archaeology / anthropological linguistics
critial point theory: huge difference between human and the other animals is the development of brain cortex

Dart Raymond A (1893-1988)

1924: discovering Australopithecus africanus

Primate (霊長類)

anthropoid (類人猿): species in superfamily Hominoidea excluding Homo

≠ the taxon of biological unit

Fossil anthropology (化石人類学)

Prosimian hypothesis (原猿仮説)
Primates → Prosimii ex. Tupaiiformes → Anthropoidea ex. Homo sapiens

male and female / night or day working

Principles of social structure on Primates

Anthropoidea hypothesis (真猿仮説)
The society of apes in the New World
The society in family Cercopithecidae (guenon)
974 Johanson D

Lucy (named from Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, Beatles)
= Australopithecus afarensis

Homo (ヒト)

Homo habilis

Syn. Australopithecus habilis

The origin of Japanese (日本人の起源)

Ofune Site (大船遺跡)

Pit dwellings (竪穴住居)
Pit dwellings were common during the Jomon Period. A round or rectangular floor was dug into the ground, and posts were erected to create the framework for the dwellings. Soil or reeds were used to thatch the fremework and create a roof over the dwellings, which contained a fire pit built onto the floor.
The pit dwellings found on the Ofune Site are relatively large, including some that range in length from 8 -11 meters long and more than two meters deep. The fire pits appear to have gradually evolved over time, from being directly built onto the floor via to fire pits lined with pottery, and later to lined with stones. This restoration of a pit dwelling is based on information gathered from excavations, and employs wood from chestnut trees to reconstruct the framework used in pit dwellings.

Ofune Ofune

(Ofune Site on July 11 2018)

Dimorphism (二型性)

♀(female) ↔ ♂ (male)

Tissue level


Reproductive organ (生殖器)

ovary (卵巣) ↔ testis (精巣)
oviduct, fallopian tube (卵管 -哺乳類) ↔ vas deferens (精管)
Vagina (膣) ↔ prostate (前立腺)
clitoris ↔ pennis
labium ↔ scrotum (陰嚢)
ovum (卵子) ↔ sperm (精子, milt = 白子)
theca interna ↔ interstial cells
(estrogen) ↔ (teststerone)
corpus leteum ↔ -
progesterone ↔ -

Cultural anthropology (文化人類学)

1871 "Primitive Culture" (Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett 1832–1917)

Proposed cultural evolutionism Culture (or civilization): integrated system of knowledge, belief (religion), art, ethic, law, custom, etc., obtained by the faculty of human who belong to the society

1931 "Science of Custom" (Benedict Ruth 1887-1948)

culture the is the univasal system of all the customs obtained by the members in the society, and is inherited socially

→ cultural anthropology
1946 "The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture (菊と刀)" (Benedict)
1949 "Male and female. A study of sexes in a changing world (女性と男性)" (Margaret Mead 1901-1978)

human development is depending on the cultural forms in belonging to the tribe and/or rations more than on the physical forms

human population - subsistence contrast
1949 "Social structure" (Murdock MG 1897-1985)

community: face to face association < band: nomadic
village: fixative, concentrared residential buildings, developing central parts
neighborhood: fixative, sporadic residential buildings, lacking coherence

Ethnology (cultural anthropology) (民俗学)

ethno- = nation; race
Ethnobiology (民族生物学)
Ethnobotany (民族植物学)
Ethnomusicology (民族音楽学), etc.

[ Japan | 日本史 ]

Oriental history (東洋史)



Wiman Joseon (衛満朝鮮) BC195?-BC108
Later Three Kingdoms (後三国)
Goguryeo (高句麗) BC37–AD668
Baekje (百済) BC18–AD660
Silla (新羅) BC57–AD935
Gaya confederacy (伽耶) AD42–562
North–South States (南北朝)
Later Silla (Unified Silla, 統一新羅) 668–935
Balhae (渤海) 698–926
Later Three Kingdoms (後三国)
Later Baekje (後百済) 892–936
Later Goguryeo (Taebong 後高句麗) 901–918
Later Silla (新羅) 668–935
Goryeo dynasty (高麗) 918–1392
Joseon (李氏朝鮮, 李朝) 1392–1897
Korean Empire (大韓帝国, 旧韓国) 1897–1910
Wang Geon (877-943, 太祖/高麗王): the founder
1910–1945 Japanese rule