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Japan (日本)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

[Vertical distribution of vegetation]

Vegetation (植生)

Table. The specificity of soil and/or topography in Japan (Usui 1971).
Vegetation          Cryptomeria  Pinus densiflora-
                           japonica        Rhododendron       kaempferi            
                           plantaion       subassociation      Chamaecyparis
                           in a valley     Carex lanceolata    obtusa plantation 
Plots                         6                       10                           4                
Chemical     Soil
component  layer
N (%)            A0      1.37              1.02-1.48              0.73-1.23
                     A    0.28-0.95          0.24-0.66              0.33-0.78
                     B    0.19-0.52          0.10-0.30              0.12-0.38
C (%)           A0          -                      10                          -
                     A        5-13                  2-11                      3-13
                     B         3-7                   1-9                        1-8
Ca               A0     285-388               202                   116-191
(mg/100 g)  A        10-279              3-150                    13-27
                    B          3-7                  1-93                      1-10
pH               A0          -                   3.9-4.0                  3.6-4.4
                    A       4.4-5.2             4.0-4.8                  3.8-4.7
                    B       4.4-5.8             4.2-5.0                  4.2-5.0             

Pinus densifolia = valley, Rhododendron kaempferi = convex surface (secondary forest), Chamaecyparis obtusa = depleted ridge


[Hokkaido(北海道), Sapporo (札幌), vertical distribution, forest (森林)]

Warmth index (温量指数)

Vegetation Vegetation in Japan (日本の植生)
Alpine vegetation
Subalpine (boreal) needle-leaved forest
Northern forest or mixed forest
Broad-leaved forest
Evergreen forest
Fir/Tsuga forest

(Yamanaka 1990)

Warmth index:
85 < laurel forest (evergreen broad-leaved forest)
45-85: deciduous broad-leaved forest
15-45: evergreen needle-leaved forest (subalpine zone)
15 > alpine zone

Forests in Japan (日本の森林)

needle-leaved forest (常緑針葉樹林)

Larix +
Picea, Abies_______Picea, Abies______Picea, Abies
Tsuga, Pinus,________Tsuga, Pinus,
Thuja, Thujopsis_____Thuja, Thujopsis

Regeneration on fallen logs (倒木更新)
= regeneration on nurse logs (one of the gap dynamics)
nurse log

Type I: Uprooting tee

Type II: Seed immigration on the mound. The height of uproot is decreased by decay and erosion

Type III: Stable uprooted mound

Type IV: Development of suceeding trees of Sakhallin fir (Abies sachalinensis Fr. Schm.)
Fig. Tree regeneration on nurse tree in Nopporo

[law, landscape, history]

Park (公園)

  • Meakan-Onneto Nature Recreation Forest
  • Mount Takao Nature Recreation Forest
  • Oi Pier Tideland Conservation Area
  • Shiroyama Nature Trail

The imperial gardens in the former lawn Shiba detached palace
Kyu shiba rikyu onshi teien (旧芝離宮恩賜庭園), Tokyo
pillar Stone Piller
This stone pillar is a gatepost that was transported from the former residence of a warlord who served the Odawara Hojo clan during the Warring States Period. The area is said to have been the site of a tearoom when it was the main Tokyo mansion of the Odawara Domain (Okubo clan).
pillar Remains of Seawater Intake
This channel was built to take in seawater for the tidal pond. The remains of the channel's stone walls and steel sluice gate can still be seen. At present, te pond has been cut off from the sea and is now a freshwater pond.
pillar Nakajima
The arrangement of stones on this island represents Mt. Horai (Chinese Mt. Penlai), a sacred mountain in Chinese mythology that is said to be the land where the immortals live, and where there is no death or old age.
pillar Seiko-no-Tsutsumi (West Lake Embankment)
West Lake (Japanese: Seiko) is a lake in Chinese city of Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province, famed for its scenic beauty. The poet Su Dongpo (Su Shi) had a long causeway built in the lake during the Northern Song Dynasty. This embankment is a replication of that causeway. Similar structures can also be seen in Koishikawa Korakuen Garden and in Hiroshima's Shukkei-en Garden.
(May 29 2015)
Koishikawa Korakuen Gardens
Koishikawa Korakuen (小石川後楽園), Tokyo
A deep ravine still remains in 0-edo (Tokyo) In the early Edo Period, in 1629, the founder of the Mito Tokugawa family, Yorifusa, maintained a separate Edo residence, the garden of which was completed during the reign of the second clan ruler, Mitsukuni. This garden features a central pond and hills, making it perfuct for a stroll. When Mitsukuni set about constructing the garden, he incorporated some concepts of the Chinese Confucian scholar Shushunsui of the Ming dynasty. including a garden reproduction of Seiko Lake (China), a "Full Moon Bridge" and other features with culrural origins in China.
The name of the garden, "Korakuen" came from a Chinese text in Hanchuen's "Gakuyoro-ki" admired by Mitsukuni which said that there is "a need for those in power to worry about maintaining power first and then enjoy power lattr." Thus, the name Korakuen, meaning "the garden for enjoying power later on," was chosen.
Under the terms of the Law for Preservation of Cultural Assets, Koishikawa Korakuen has been desinuated an important historical asset and site of special historical significance. This double designation has been given only to such important sites as Koishikawa Koraken, Hama Detached Palace, Kinkakuju, etc.
Pine While the big pond was interpreted as Lake Biwa, the biggest lake in Japan, this landmark was called Hitotsumatsu after the one stnding on the coast of the lake.
This is the oldest building in the garden. Mitsukuni, the 2nd lord of Mito-Tokugawa family, ordered it to niche the two statues of Hakui and Shukusei. Mitsukuni, an earnest of Confucianist, deeply impressed by their lives. The name of this small shrine is derived from the Analects of Confucious.
MitoHakke-do traces
When Mitsukuni, the 2nd loar of Mito-Tokugawa family, met the 3rd shogun, Iemitsu, he was given a statue of a patron saint of literature. Later he built a small shrine called Hakke-do to enshrine the statue in. The shrine was burnt down in the big fire after a great earthquake in 1923.
The producing district of this stonewas Ono in Hitachi area. Mitsukuni, the 2nd lord of Mito-Tokugawa family, connected Ono with Ono-no-Komachi, a famous beauty in old times and called. This stone was quarried in Ono.
Montument (Mr. Touko Fujita)
This mountain is called Kisoyama, as old trees shading sunlight and a winding road along a mountain stream reminded people Kiso Highway, one of the main highways to Kyoto. It is also called shuro-yama, or palm trees mountain, because there are a lot of palm trees.

(November 18 2016)


Yanagi (Willow Tree) Well (の井)

Designated Historic Site, Tokyo Metropolis____Designated March 28, 1955
This well below the embankment of Sakurada-bori Moat is known as the Well of Yanagi due to the willow tree (yanagi) nearby. During the Edo Period (1603-1868), it was known as a famous water source that never dried up, even during times of drought, and it is said that it was used by many of the people who passed by.
In the National Diet Building Garden (formerly the residence of Kato Kiyomasa and Ii Kamonnokami) across the road, is the Sakura (Cehrry Tree) Well, also well known as a famous water source.
Kanda-Sakumacho 3-chome (神田佐久間町三丁目)
This neighborhood, which was inhabited by a mixture of samurai and merchants, takes its name from Heihachi Sakuma, the inherited name given to head of a lumber merchant family that lived in this area from generation to generation.

Osaka Castle Park (大阪城公園)

Osaka Castle
Ichi-no-kami-kuruwa Bailey (市正曲輪)
Around the early 17th century when Hideyori was a lord of the castle, Katsumoto Katagiri, one of the Toyotomi's guardians, lived around this vicinity. Katsumoto's official title was "Higashi-ichi-no-kami" and the place was called "Ichi-no-kami-kuruwa". In the Edo period an office for "Kaban" guards of the castle was established in this area. Presently many apricot trees have been planted here.
Remains of the Osaka Army Arsenal (大阪砲兵工廠跡)
The Osaka Army Arsenal was one of the largest military factories in modern Japan, originating from the Zoheishi (Office of Weapons Manufacturing) established in 1870 in the vicinity of this site. Mainly producing cannons, as well as consumer gods, the Arsenal spearheaded the industrialization of Osaka. Its premises contain the areas presently known as Osaka Business Park, Morinomiya, and the east side of the Osaka Loop Line. The Arsenal was destroyed in 1945 air raids, and the former main building, which survived the bombing, was dismantled by Osaka City in 1981 to build Osaka-Jo Hall. In the Edo period, this area was called “Okura Kuruwa” (warehouse compound), where rows of warehouses to store rice collected as taxes and found.

[world, Hokkaido]

Geography (地理)

Biogeography (生物地理)

Jomon Forest (縄文の森)