(Upload on August 23 2022) [ 日本語 | English ]

Tree (木本植物)

Mount Usu / Sarobetsu post-mined peatland
From left: Crater basin in 1986 and 2006. Cottongrass / Daylily

Morphological and taxonomical definition
a woody perennial plant usually with main trunk(s) which develop(s) branches
forest, life form, bark)
plants with one or more self-supporting, perennial woody stems that live for more than one year
Myrica gale vs Quercus glauca, both of the m are tree
  • root: anchors and absorbs nutrients from the soil
  • trunk: generally straight and vertical, located between the root collar and the branches (stem)
  • branch: secondary woody stem arising from the trunk of a tree and bearing shoots
  • twig: the smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot
  • leaf: organ in plants that has various forms (needles, scales, etc.) and that carries on photosynthesis, producing energy for life
  • flower: the reproductive structure of plant consisting of the male and/or female parts
[evergreen tree, giant tree]
[Advanced course in environmental conservation]
[Plants and Plant communities in Japan]

Plant trait database (TRY)

Basically for trees
  • Provide a global archive of plant traits
  • Promote trait-based approaches in ecology and biodiversity science
  • Support the design of a new generation of global vegetation models
  • phtosynthetic pathway
  • photosynthetic capacity
  • respiration
  • regeneration capacity
  • plant lifespan
  • growth form
  • leaf longevity
  • leaf area
  • specific leaf area (SLA)
  • phenology type
  • N fixing capacity
  • leaf N
  • leaf P
  • maximum plant height
  • wood density
  • seed mass

Evergreen tree (常緑樹)

Evergreen plant
A plant that has leaves in all seasons
Evergreen tree
A tree that is grouped into evergreen plant

needle-leaved evergreen tree, e.g., hemlock, and black spruce
broad-leaved evergreen tree

Leaves of broad-leaved evergreen trees

From left to right: Ternstroemia gymnanthera (Wight et Arn.) Sprague, Eurya japonica Thunb., Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc., Lithocarpus edulis (Makino) Nakai, Quercus acuta Thunb. ex Murray, Osmanthus fragrans Lour. var. aurantiacus Makino

Trees distributed in Hokkaido

These species could be seen in Hokkaido University Campus (*: transplantation)

Select trees, and explain why?

Sasa senanensis
Geum pentapetalum
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Salix reinii

Giant tree (巨木)

  • American tulip tree in the Koishikawa Botanical Garden (百合ノ木)
  • Amur corktree at Shizunai Experimental Farm (黄膚)
  • Camphor laurel at Meiji Shrine ()
  • Camphor laurel at Shiroyama ()
  • Camphor laurel at Sumiyoshi Shrine ()
  • Chestnut in Tsukiura Forest Park ()
  • Chinese hackberry at Osaka Castle Park ()
  • Chinese juniper at Odawara Castle (柏槇)
  • Gingko at Kakuo Temple (銀杏)
  • Head-staking Gingko at Hibiya Park (銀杏)
  • Holy tree in Soma Shrine (柴栗)
  • Japanese alder at Yachidamo Park (榛ノ木)
  • Japanese black pine at Daiganji Temple (黒松)
  • Japanese black pine at Hama-rikyu Gardens (300-Year Pine, 黒松)
  • Japanese lime at Tomamu skislope (科木)
  • Japanese yew at Takahashi Pass (一位)
  • Japanese zelkova at Inuzuka ()
  • Katsura tree at Koganeyu ()
  • Manchurian oak in the forest of Hokkaido prefecture residents (水楢)
  • Manchurian oak at Makomanai (水楢)
  • Manchurian oak at Towa (水楢)
  • Manchurian oak at Zenko Temple (水楢)
  • Old Three Trees (老三樹)

Head-staking ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) (首賭けイチョウ)

hby hby This large ginkgo tree stood at the Hibiya Approach (near the present Hibiya corssing) before Hibiya Park opened.
Around 1899, Dr. Seiroku Honda (the designer of Hibiya Park) was surprised to learn that this tree was to be felled due to the road expansion; he approached Toru Hoshi, Chairman of Tokyo Municipal Council, and it was agreed that the ginkgo tree should be transplanted.
The name derived from the successful move, which was thought to have been impossible. Dr. Honda had said, "I will have it transplanted even if my head is put on a stake.

Tulip tree in the Koishikawa Botanical Garden (Liriodendron tulipifera) (百合ノ木)

tulip tree tulip tree Liriodendron consists of two species, L. tulipifera L. and L. chinense (Hemsl.) Sarg., disjunctively distributed in North America and China, respectively. This tree was grown from seed received from USA in early Meiji Era and one of the oldest trees of this species in Japan.


Oshima cherry (Prunus speciosa) on Izu-Oshima Island (大島のサクラ株)

Oshima Oshima
Sakurakkabu Cherry Tree
This is a giant Oshima cherry tree, estimated to be 800 years old. Roughly 500 years ago in a large eruption, the area surrounding the Sakurakkabu Cherry Tree was covered with a huge lava flow. As the tree was growing on a slightly raised area, it was left untouched while the surrounding trees were destroyed. Thus, the lone Sakurakkabu Cherry Tree stood out on the landscape, and became a landmark to passing ships. (In Senzu, Izu-Oshima Island on June 8 2023)